Spectrum of Emerging
Sciences, 1 (1) 2021, 29-35
Role of IoT, web services, and chemical science
Chemistry, Echelon Institute of Technology, Faridabad, 121101, Haryana, India.
available online at: https://esciencesspectrum.com/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2021-1-1-4
Received: 11 November 2021
Accepted: 13 November 2021
Web of Sciences,
As all the industries are growing up
with the Internet of Things (IoT). It is the major area of concern nowadays.
It plays a vital role in all the major sectors of the world like Economics,
Medical Science, Defense Systems, social media, and other prospects to
communicate with the people. In current situations which are being faced by
the whole world due to the pandemic, IoT is playing a vital role. In the case
of COVID-19, IoT-based technologies are being used for monitoring patients to
maintain the protocols, different web applications are used for communicating
with people and helping them to provide solutions for various problems being
faced during quarantine times. Besides IoT, various web services are also
playing a vital role in fighting these current situations and other future
problems. Various web services are currently being used for the collection of
data to find out specific information in a limited region or throughout the
whole. These web services also work as a mediator between two different sources.
It also helps to communicate with people in large numbers. IoT and web
services are complementary to each other. Chemical science also plays
important role in covid-19. It helps us in detection, prevention as well as
recovery of covid patients.
The term "Internet of
Things" may be defined as a combination of different types of technologies
within a network, which works automatically without the help of human
interactions. OR, Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the connection established
by two internets of computing devices embedded in objects used in day-to-day
life enabling them to send and receive data. IoT has gained
new limelight in the recent past and also it has gained much convincing
research ground as a new topic to be researched in a huge list of academic,
industrial, technological, economic, political, and other social aspects too.
But in the field of medical sciences . The use of IoT
has created a major change in the treatment of people. Diagnosis of every
person has become easier than before because the conventional diagnosis systems
have been replaced with more personalized systems which make monitoring
patients and treatment better than before. IoT is now playing a more important
role in medical science and healthcare due to lower expenses of IoT-based
devices, much better services than the conventional systems, a very frequent
and easily understandable user experience, and various advanced features too. In the case of
IoT, there is no limit to the number of devices to be connected. It is all
about exchanging data from one device to another or exchanging meaningful
information between devices. However, the data has to be interpreted correctly
and it needs many other technologies to come hand in hand to work side-by-side.
IoT is not just a single type of technology; it is a collection of technologies
and domain knowledge.
Innovative work has a basic task to
carry out as well– science-based exploration establishments and organizations
of all sizes are pulling together their endeavors towards finding more about
the infection, creating improved testing advances, and ultimately making an
antibody. Many offer administrations or gadgets that as of now utilize
forefront compound science to gauge more modest examples, or accomplish higher
throughput. Science is fundamental at each progression of our reaction to the
infection. In previous research, professionals are given the expert abilities
expected to run tests, keep up the gear and oversee lab supplies - including
the gifts of synthetics for hand san and security hardware that are going
directly to specialists and attendants on the forefronts. Using different
chemical compounds, we can protect ourselves like chlorine. Web services may be
defined as a collection of various standards and open protocols used for the
exchange of data between applications or systems. Various Web Services are
training their applications using machine learning to find out various lungs
related problems, including diseases like tuberculosis, Asthma, etc., the
original solution has been repurposed by organizations for the ongoing
pandemic. With the help of various web services and IOTs, the fight between
people and governments has become a little easier than the previous times. If
we don't have any IOTs and web services as of now, the virus could have been more
hazardous than it is now.
In the current scenario and
challenges caused by the covid-19 disease. It is one of the biggest outbreaks
since the influenza outbreak of 1918 and the SARS (severe acute respiratory
syndrome) outbreak of 2003. According to the
reports from the World Health Organization (WHO) as of December 2020, there
have been more than 73 million confirmed cases of covid-19 with a huge death
rate of around 1.6 million and the numbers are still increasing. The main cause
of so many cases is that the virus spreads from person to person. There can be
both symptomatic and asymptomatic carriers, which increases the levels of
contamination. Therefore, dealing with the coronavirus with the help of IoT
technology and web services is a bit more efficient and safer.
In the world, there are several types
of viruses that infected people from time to time. They are generated from
different sources which affect the people most. These viruses are most
dangerous to mankind and other species as they tend to replicate themselves at
a very high speed . These viruses
also possess tendencies like spreading from animals to humans or vice-versa. To
fight against such types of viruses has become easier in today's world than the
previous times. If we talk about the previous pandemics generated due to
viruses there is no facility to detect the virus, to treat the infected people,
to spread awareness in people about pandemics. There is various type of disease
that can affect the world at a single time. There have several numbers of which
have become a hazard for the world and can be seen from the Influenza virus
from 1918 to the covid-19 virus in 2019. When the new flu or disease emerges,
it spreads very vastly, In the early phase it is hard to detect and hard to
treat because of lack of knowledge about the virus or current strain of the
These viruses can be listed as:
In 1976 Ebola Virus:
This virus is also called Ebola
hemorrhagic fever. The first outbreak of the Ebola virus spread from the
African countries of the Republic of Congo and Sudan. Ebola spreads into
persons from tissues of infected humans or animals or contacts to body fluids
or blood of infected persons. The Ebola virus appeared as a deadly outbreak in
the year 1976. The strain varies dramatically in their deadliness. Sudan Strain
is known as the deadliest strain of the Ebola virus having a 71% fatality rate.
Treatment of Ebola Using IoT and Web-Services: Treating and supportive care both are used to fight against the
Ebola virus. In the current situation, two drugs are approved by the US
government for the treatment of the Ebola virus. The first one is Inmazeb which
is a combination of three monoclonal antibodies and the second drug is a single
monoclonal antibody named Abanga. IoT and Cloud Computing services are more
effective which provides remote continuous monitoring of patients. Some of the
devices which are used for detection, treatment, and recovery phase, RFID
(Radio Frequency Identification Device) and wearable sensor technologies and
cloud computing technology are used in all phases.
In 1980 HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus): The deadliest virus to date is HIV
which appeared as an outbreak in the very 1980s. It is a virus that gets into
human beings’ cells. It affects the human immune system especially the T-Cells
which helps the body to fight the infection. This virus destroys the T-Cells.
Treatment of HIV Using Web-Services and IoT: There is no effective cure for HIV but it can be controlled with
proper medical care. Most people can control HIV within 6 months but there are
no medicines that prevent the transmission of another sexually transmitted
disease. The HIV medicines are called Antiretroviral Therapy (ART).
There is no direct use of IoTs in the
treatment of HIV because it spreads only through blood contact or body fluid of
an infected person or animal. In this case, cloud computing technology helps to
provide information, data and create awareness in people about the deadliness.
In 1993 Hanta Virus: This Virus firstly gained attention
1993. The virus is not that contagious as compared to other viruses as It
doesn't spread from person to person, whereas it spreads from exposure to the
droplets of infected mice to persons. Hanta Virus is prominently known as
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.
In 2002 SARS-CoV: This Virus first gained its attention 2002. This is prominently
known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.
It is a species of coronavirus that infects humans, bats, and certain other
mammals. It is a type of RNA virus. IoT and Web services technology helped to
overcome the SARS-CoV in all phases, with IoT gadgets the process to identify
or detect, treat is easier. The making of a large number of medicines with the
help of IoT technology makes the process easy. The Web-services provide proper
data to companies to get proper information about the various guidelines and
other aspects to be known about virus.
In 2008 Rota Virus: Is a family
member of Reoviridae RNA, it is a double-stranded- RNA virus. This is a major
disease among children. Mainly infants get a high fatality rate due to this
virus. The basic symptoms of the Rota Virus are vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and
abdominal cavity of children. It came into the limelight in 2008. There are
several vaccines available for the virus namely RV5 and RV1 in different doses
at different times. IoT-based devices help doctors to monitor the patients and
record the changes in the body. Also, Web
services help to take the record of available information about the virus.
We're facing such types of viruses for a very long time. Every 100 years, the
world fights with a new virus that is even more dangerous than the previous
one. With the IoT and AI, the fight against such types of viruses has become
easier as they help people to keep social distancing and take care of other
health safety measures without infecting others, .
IoT and web services play an
important role to fight against such types of deadliest viruses in various
ways. It helps us to detect, to treat, and to recover the patients from the
virus. However, some
viruses which were before the covid are more dangerous than this SARS CoV-2.
But this covid virus was fought effectively with the help of IoT-based machine
learning techniques and AI which helped people to know what are the current
safety measures and guidelines decided by the government to get a lower rate of
infection. In today's
hospitals we use IoT-based devices to treat people from viruses and other
diseases such as Ventilators, Nurse Robots, Sanitizing Drones, Mopping Robots,
and many more IoT devices like Heart-rate monitors, BP-Machines, Remote-Patient
monitoring devices, MRI and ECG machines, Wireless connectivity and cloud
Role of IoT for Handling Pandemic Challenges
IoT plays a vital role in handling
the challenges due to covid-19. It helps the system to find out COVID patients
with the help of smart thermometers and smart thermal cameras. There are a lot
of IoTs which are used for communicating and information sharing . It helps to find
out the data of different types of stages, different area structures and helps
people to find out the containment zones or heavily spread areas. If we divide
the whole scenario into three different phases like ‘trace/track’, ‘detect’,
and ‘treatment/recovery’ times, and then discuss the role of different IOTs in
these phases. In the very first phase, i.e., ‘detect’, we need to generate such
processes with which we can identify more people who are infected by the
disease. Identifying the infected people rapidly is the only way to overcome
the problem of spreading the virus. After identifying the patient and getting
information about their travel history, meeting with the people and all .
In the second phase quarantine the
infected people and ‘trace’ them. The tracing of people who are come in the
containment zone or coming in the influence of infected people. With the help
of IOTs, the process of sanitizing the infected area and all tracing processes
like communicating with people and tracing their health report . In the third
phase which is the recovery/treating, phase IoTs play an important role with
the treat and communication by the robots. In this phase, the patients are
widely monitored by the IoT devices. With the IoT devices, the process of
making the medicine and monitoring the results are become easy and faster, only
because of the IoTs devices the various multinational companies can make the
vaccine and hopefully we getting good results in the future.
(The Early Phase): The most important and first phase of diagnosis is the phase
of detection. The detection phase helps particulars to identify the rate of
infection or at which rate the infection is spreading in a particular region.
The detection phase can be done using multiple applications and wearable items,
as the lockdown times helped innovators to develop such innovations which can
help governments to analyze people's health using the data they got through
various IoT-based applications or web services. Detection is carried out easily
with these wearable items and applications as it is not a cup of tea to
evaluate every person personally or individually. Since the disease covid-19 is
a worldly pandemic and not a specific region disease, therefore it makes more
use of such items to help clarify the exact data of infected people. There can
be various items and applications based on requirements as below:
Helmets:-Smart Helmets have proven that they
are safer for any person to use. As the camera on the top of the helmet shows
what the temperature of a person is and it automatically stores the data of the
person including its location and a picture of the particular. It is of high
use for people as it helps people to depict the contaminated person or a person
with the same symptoms of the disease covid-19. Even a location history feature
can also be injected or implemented in it to check where the infected person
went in the recent past.
Goggles: - Smart goggles are another good
implementation of IoT over the device. These smart goggles are better than
thermometers as there is less human interaction in smart goggles as compared to
thermometers. These goggles have inbuilt face recognition and thermal scanning
feature which helps people to find infectious or symptomatic people in crowded
areas. These goggles have an inbuilt data chip to store the data of persons
including their facial data to recognize the person later on. These glasses are
highly usable for mass screening of people in contaminated areas.
These small thermometers are very useful in screening people as they are cheap
and are compact and also bear a high level of accuracy in terms of temperature
measurement. These thermometers also contain the data of a very large amount of
people at a time. These are also useful as they help people to keep
social-distancing while checking for their thermal intensity, while in infrared
thermometers the people are also less separated from each other. In infrared
thermometers it is more likely that the virus spread increase, therefore these
thermometers are highly recommended.
1: Smart Thermometers
Drones are also highly useful devices
as the other devices. In general, it is always necessary to screen a large
number of people as faster as possible as it releases the pressure of high
contamination and the infected or symptomatic people can also be quarantined at
a very early phase. Early detection will lead to a higher recovery rate too.
These drones are unmanned aerial vehicles also called UAVs. These decrease the
level of human interaction which is a bit more in using of thermometers and
also these can be used to screen people in far most areas where humans can’t
reach easily. These can be more helpful in speeding up the screening process of
people and finding contaminated zones also. Thermal imaging drones can be
highly useful in screening people in crowded or highly populated areas.
Thermal Scanning Drones
According to the dictionary in terms of science fiction A machine that
resembles a human and can replicate various human body movements and
functionalities automatically. Robots are indeed one of the best inventions to
date because it reduces the workload which is needed to be done by humans. As
we all are fighting in a very critical situation, robots play a very vital role
and help so much in different phases. It works at the places of human beings,
so it reduces the overall strain of a human and also reduces the chances of
contagiousness of a human from other infected person or patient. These robots
also work as communication mediators in different scenarios. The robots play a
vital role in every phase of covid time, they avoid human interaction in all the
phases. In the detection phase, it helps throughout the testing process; it
takes samples from the throat of the people.
Fig. 3 Robots taking the sample from the throat
Track/Trace (The Secondary Phase): Tracking a person is carried
out using various techniques or apps to reduce a sudden outbreak of the
pandemic. The tracking can be done in various ways using many IoT-based types
of equipment or using many other types of web services. The tracking phase can
mainly have four types like initialization, sensing, reporting, and tracking
the details of an individual. Individual scanning and mass tracing both can be
carried out using various IoT-based applications and web services. Individual
scanning can be done using some smartphone applications which can help people
diagnose themselves by undergoing a symptomatic trial of the disease, while in
mass tracing it can be done using various types of surveillance devices,
thermal scanners, smart thermometers, and other wearable items and the data can
be then used to identify the current situations of individuals.
There are the following things that
are mainly used to handle pandemic situations:
Applications: With the help of Smartphone
applications by using information such as geographic information systems (GIS)
and Global Positioning Systems (GPS) both are widely used for tracking and
detecting infected people. Many applications are being used by the governments
for tracking and communicating with the covid patients. These applications make
it easy to track the patients and also their records of travel. With the help
of Smartphone applications, the people are easy to find the travel history and
the nearest containment zone, and the covid patients near them.
Setu: -It has been developed by the Ministry
of IT and electronics of GoI (Government of India) for alerts users if they
have come in contact with someone who has been corona tested positive. Tracking
work is done by Bluetooth and users can get paths for infected persons.
Firstly, we have to install the app and after that our mobile phone's Bluetooth
and location should be turned on. With the help of this application, we can do
self-testing by answering a few questions. After responding to these questions,
and if the responses indicate symptoms of covid-19 then the information is sent
to the government servers. The app also provides self-quarantine instructions
TraceTogether is a popular Smartphone
app in Singapore that can be downloaded by users having a Bluetooth-enabled
Smartphone and a mobile number of Singapore Country. This app uses a contact
tracing technique to alert users whether they have been in close contact with
anyone positive case in the past two weeks. The application doesn’t collect any
data about the users' present location or the data about Wi-Fi/Mobile networks.
When two persons are in proximity to each other, both phones will use Bluetooth
to exchange a Temporary ID. This Temporary ID is generated by encryption of the
User’s ID with a private key held by the Health Ministry (MOH) of Singapore.
CovidWatch app is developed under the
influence of Stanford University, California. This app helps people to keep a
keen eye on their privacy and health measures without getting in contact with
contagious persons. CovidWatch uses Bluetooth signals to detect people and
alarms the person anonymously when are in proximity with a positive person.
Corona Dataspende: The covid Dataspende application made
under the directions of the German government is a coronavirus tracking app
that monitors people – body temperature, heart rate, and sleeping patterns
also. This app makes use of wearable items like smartwatches or fitness bands to
take a look at a person's health.
Fig. 4 Virus tracking Application
Many types of drones are being used to handle pandemic situations. There are
the following special operations that are carried out by the drones during the
pandemic situation. The drone technology can reduce the interactions between
humans and can also reach hard-to-access locations. In the IoT category of
drones, for medical sciences purposes in the case of covid-19, surveillance
drones can best fit in the category of tracking. These drones contain thermal
scanners and can target a whole crowded area at once or can perform
person-to-person surveillance also. These drones contain a data unit of tracked
people which can be used to analyze the symptomatic people in the crowd. The working
of these drones can be understood by this simple block diagram.
Fig. 1 Constructive model of Drone
A drone is used for surveillance,
search, detection, and all others, so for all of the above uses GPS and cameras
and for other purposes, it uses high specific CPUs. A quad-copter or drone for
completing their purpose consists of the following components: flight
controller, RC receiver (remote controller)/transmitter, Raspberry Pi (RPi),
Lidar Lite, RF Transmitter, BLDC motor, Camera and Gimbal. The flight
Controller acts as a central unit of the overall drone. It takes all the
information/commands from all sources and sends them to the ESC (Electronic
Speed Controller). ESC can receive speed data from the flight controller and
maintain accordingly all the BLDC motors. RF (Radio Frequency) Transmitters are
used to transmit the information with the radio frequency. RC receiver is used
to control the speed of the BLDC motor. RPI is a wireless small-sized computer
with Bluetooth connectivity, which helps to take the information from the
camera and pass it to the flight controller which sends it to the ground level.
Gimbal is used for camera alignment on the side of their target. Lidar Lite is
a range finder that is used for the characteristics of drones like high
efficiency, high range, and low noise. It is also used to calculate the height
(Altitude) of the quad-copter.
During pandemic times robots play a vital role in different types of phases.
Robots help medical staff to work away from isolated patients. Some type of
robots is used in different processes of medical science like diagnosis,
surgeries which can be very helpful for the medical staff. Robots also help in
the making of medicines and working in the laboratories which helps the medical
staff or scientists to stay away from being captured by the virus. Robots also
act as mediators between medical staff and infected people. The basic working
of a medical robot can be understood with the help of a simple block diagram.
Constructive model of Robot.
contain the following components: 2 motors with encoder, one motor driver, ECB
(Embedded controller board), Ultrasonic sensor, IMU, PC, Speaker/Mic, Wi-Fi. It
contains two motors with encoders that are directly connected with the ECB. An
encoder is used to count the number of rotations of the motors. Both motors are
driven by the motor driver which is connected directly to the motors and ECB.
It gets information about controlling the motor speed. It has two sensors;
Ultrasonic sensors are used for sensing the obstacle and measuring the distance
from the obstacle, while IMU sensors are used for improving and calculating the
odometric calculations. Both sensors are directly connected with the ECB, they
directly communicate and give information to the ECB. The ECB is interfaced
into a PC, where all the high-end processing takes place. Vision and sound
sensors are interfaced with the PC. Wi-Fi is used for remote operations.
/ Treatment (The Ternary Phase): The recovery phase is one of the most important
phases in the cycle of a covid patient to be a normal person. In the recovery
phase, various things are used for the early treatment of an infected person
and after treatment, a lot of things are used in its recovery also. The
recovery phase is the most difficult phase which is needed to be implemented at
a very faster rate and very frequently too. In this phase, we need to
quarantine the infected person for at least a time of 14 days and treat them
with needed medications which are done using various IoT-based techniques to
reduce the human interaction with the covid patient, also Sanitizing the whole
area is also a big challenge. These all challenges are minimized by the use of
IoT and web services.
Wearable’s:- After the treatment there is a big challenge to
make a safe distance between the people who are working in the offices, for
students who are going regularly to their schools and colleges, in such type of
conditions there are some wearable IoT based devices which can help to monitor
the situation of infected people and other ones too.
Watches and Smart Bands: These are the devices that help continuously to monitor their heart
rate, pulse rate, sleeping time, and also measure their body temperature. These
IoT devices help people to keep social distancing as well by showing red led
lights on their faces whenever people come in close contact in a contaminated
place. The smart bands are a combination of various IoTs which senses and
capture the data from another device, they are working in a specific radius and
they show their presence by LED lights if the person wearing it has less heart
rate or pulse rate, it may be infected
from the covid-19 disease. So, with the help of LED lights which are present in
the bands. As we see the market of bands and smartwatches is growing
drastically after the covid-19 outbreak.
Detectors: As all the
things are going back to the normal tracks, industries are opening, students
are going regularly to schools and colleges, the risk of having contamination
among people will increase with the increase of the number of people coming
outside of their homes and the chances of decreasing social distancing will
also increase. With the help of these contiguity detectors, humans will be able
to focus on their work without worrying about getting infected by the virus.
These devices sound alarms to inform people when social distancing is not
followed or someone is very near.
3 Social Distancing Wearable’s
Drones: As the whole pandemic enters its final phase, the
role of drones is increasing. The drones have multiple roles in handling the
pandemic in multiple scenarios. In this phase, the drones are used for both
business and personal purposes, to spread awareness about covid in the people.
than distinguishing the drone into various names, they all can be termed as
multipurpose drones. Or it may be defined as it is the combination of all
possible categories of drones. These are the following categories of drones
important point for governments across the world nowadays is to restrict the
spread of viruses. To make sure that they are taking proper steps to reduce the
person-to-person contact. Most of the countries around the world took favorable
measures like the closure of non-essential public places, a ban on mass
gatherings of people, and ensuring a social distancing criterion to limit
physical contact among persons. Monitoring drones helps a lot in checking
whether people are following the necessary restrictions needed to combat the
drones can be used in the logistics of testing samples, delivering results, and
medical supplies. Further, drone deliveries can be used for transporting
essential goods to people, especially those who are in far-most and isolated
areas. Also, it helps people in maintaining physical distancing and also takes
less time in delivery as compared to road transportation.
drones are being used to spray disinfectants through aerial spray. With the
help of these drones, the process of sanitizing the area is very safe and fast.
Also, these drones limit the increase of human efforts. The drone is filled
with sanitizing chemicals and made to take off and spray the disinfectant.
drones are used to give information to a crowded region, where people are not
following the major restrictions being updated by the government knowingly or
unknowingly, by using these drones audio messages can be delivered in regions.
Classification of Robots based on their works during a pandemic:
Robots: As the
number of patients increases in the world, therefore chances of getting
infected or getting in contact with the virus are also increasing. In current
conditions schools are also getting opened and everything is getting normal
than the lockdown times, receptionist robots are getting used to direct dealing
with people in the hospitals and other different places. These robots provide
actual data without suffering from the workload and guide patients and visitors
about various units/sections of the hospital.
types of robots are used for cleaning the various areas of the hospital to keep
the hospitals clean and away from infections. These robots are also used to
clean the medical types of equipment using vacuum and dry cleaning processes
without the fear of being infected. These robots are used to mop a floor using
sanitizers or to spray the disinfectant in the whole area.
Fig. 4 Cleaning and Sanitizing
Robots: During the pandemic where doctors
and nurses gets feared while treating the covid patients, a country in Japan
invented nurse robots which are used in taking care of patients at the
hospitals. These robots also work as a mediator between the patient and the
doctor. These robots reduce the chances of getting infected with the virus.
These robots also work as an assistant to the doctors in the same way a nurse
used to assist.
Fig. 5 Surgical and
Since there are various robots for
performing various types of roles according to their specifications, below is a
list of robots according to their working capabilities and country of origin
including the names of their manufacturing companies.
Applications: The main role of applications in the
ternary phase is providing and sharing their health to the concerned
authorities and to the user itself. In this phase, basic applications which are
used to check symptoms are used frequently. These applications also provide
healthcare tips if the person is symptomatic to the virus or not and if it
seems to be symptomatic whatever measures the person should take to get
dis-infected from the virus.
This app was introduced by the
Ministry of Health of Israel. This application uses contact tracing to keep an
eye on the infected people. This app stores data of almost two weeks of the
contagious person. This app shares the location history and other information
of the infected people with the government. Also, HaMagen redirects the people
to the health ministry website if it finds that the person was in close contact
with an infected or contagious person.
Corona App: This application was introduced by
the health ministry of Croatia. This app gets all the information of the
individual about their location, their contact sharing daily. It also helps to
submit or get health reports based on the symptoms of a specific person. It
also helps the government to find high-risk contaminated zones.
V. Role of Web Service
Web services like
www.worldometer.info which is a data over live world statistics on the
population of the world, governments of countries and their economics, society,
and media, environment, food, water, energy, and health. It also shares
interesting statistics with a world population counter clock, forests lost this
year, carbon dioxide co2 emission in the atmosphere, world’s hunger report,
total energy consumed, and a lot more statistics about various other important
aspects of the world and is now helping people to see the real-time analysis of
the number of covid cases in a particular area. All the cases are updated
and HTML5 as its basic programming language and has made the source code
open-source for other developers to help them develop apps and websites which
can help people with other health-related issues and deal with the covid
Blue-dot global has been harvesting
data from various pharma and medical publications across the globe and applying
various Artificial Intelligence techniques to that data to identify the
changing trends and signals related to the covid-19 disease pandemic. The main
aim behind this data harvesting is to take advantage of the big data and to
quickly detect any outbreak across the globe, and to anticipate how the
outbreak of disease can spread across the world, and also anticipate what can
be the major consequences that could be faced by public due to outbreak.
Fig. 6 World meter
and Blue dot
Phase: Various companies applied machine
learning techniques to analyze human chest x-rays to spot early signs of corona infection. Some innovators also
applied AI-based machine learning techniques to identify which X-Ray films are
more likely to resemble the covid-19 patients and those should be viewed more
quickly by the doctors to decrease the time of treatment of the infected and
diagnosed person. E.g. UC San Diego Health Systems also applied this technique.
Web services like symptomate.com and
patient.info help people diagnose themselves by providing their details of the
symptoms they are having and, after the symptoms are analyzed they get
treatment from the specialized doctor related to the symptoms. This way the
patient can get treatment directly from the home instead of going to any
doctor. These services are offered 24/7 without any queue of people waiting for
Many pharmaceutical-based companies have
also come across the internet in the form of web services to provide their
services to the needy worldwide. Services like netmeds.com, medlife.com,
pharmacy, etc have made buying medicines online easier for people. Also to deal
with the pandemic they're offering special deals and faster delivery of
medicines to the patients. These web services have made a special column for
covid patients seeking covid related medicines so that people don't have to
seek a prescription from a doctor and can directly consume the medicines to
treat themselves in an early stage.
VI. Other helpful aspects of
Various online platforms help to
study that how the city centers have been left out without people and the
people have started to use online facilities more than offline facilities or
going to the stores themselves. Also, these data helped local businesses to
grow their business more easily and in a more convenient way. Local businesses
are growing day by day online as people are abiding to get out of their homes
due to the severe increase in the cases of disease covid-19. Besides, helping
the local businesses to grow web services has also helped people to maintain
social distancing and other important measures that are needed to keep the
virus away from one's body can also be sustained. Countries have asked
binge-watching platforms like Netflix, Prime Video, and Hot star, and other
streaming platforms to deduce their premium streaming plans by which they can
ask people to stay at home as long as possible. Also deducing the prices has
increased the number of subscribers of each of the streaming platforms and a
lesser strain is now on both the governments and people as well.
Role of Chemical science
This is the drug that president of
the US Donald Trump has declared "very powerful" with “ very
encouraging results.” After an
announcement US government, the pharmaceutical company has agreed to donate
more than six million doses of hydroxychloroquine sulfate tablets—a less toxic
metabolite of chloroquine—to hospitals across the country. It is approved to
treat malaria and rheumatoid arthritis. When it has been tested in vitro
against viruses, including SARS, and found to inhibit growth. There was no
benefit has been seen in animal models.3In
a limited way, the drug has been tested against SARS-CoV-2—the cause of
covid-19—and has reportedly been found “highly effective,” although the
evidence is still limited, with much of the data unpublished. While the early
results are “promising” they have “yet to be fully scrutinized, and, of course,
it is essential to conduct other, larger controlled trials to determine
accurately the effectiveness of chloroquine as a treatment for covid-19. But in
among the oppressive darkness of the current situation, any glimmer of hope is
very welcome.”The mode of action against covid-19 has not been established,
there are three different ways chloroquine—which acts to neutralize acids—could
potentially work. Numerous infections enter have cells through a cycle called
endocytosis. This implies that the infection is at first taken up into an
intracellular 'compartment' that is ordinarily acidic. Chloroquine would modify
the acridity of this compartment, which can meddle with the capacity of
infections to escape into the host cell and begin duplicating. Another chance
is that chloroquine may modify the capacity of the infection to tie to the
outside of a host cell in any case, which is a fundamental initial step for
section. Finally, chloroquine effects affect a wide assortment of safe cells.
Hence, the medication is now and again utilized in immune system conditions
like lupus or rheumatoid joint inflammation. One of these impacts may
invigorate the body's capacity to ward off Coronavirus.
May added that as chloroquine has a
“long history of clinical use, the safety profile is well established, and it
is cheap and relatively easy to manufacture, so it would—theoretically—be
fairly easy to accelerate into clinical trials and, if successful, eventually
Kaletra is a mix of two antiviral
medications—lopinavir and ritonavir—typically used to treat HIV. Lopinavir was
recognized after the 2003 SARS episode as an expected treatment. Persuading
proof regarding its impact, in any case, was deficient. As of late, analysts
from China tried the adequacy and security of oral lopinavir-ritonavir for
SARS-CoV-2 disease through a randomized controlled preliminary yet discovered
"no advantage" past standard care."Whether joining
lopinavir-ritonavir with other antiviral specialists, as has been done in SARS
and is being concentrated in MERS-CoV, may upgrade antiviral impacts and
improve clinical results stays to be resolved," the scientists closed.
Another preliminary taking a gander at the viability of lopinavir-ritonavir,
just as low portion dexamethasone (a steroid used to lessen aggravation), has
recently begun. The preliminary group has said it will persistently survey data
on new medications and will remember promising ones for the preliminary. On the
off chance that Kaletra is discovered to be powerful as a Coronavirus
treatment, nations will want to purchase conventional types of it after drug
organization AbbVie declared that it won't authorize its worldwide patent rights
on the medication.
Surgical spirit is for the most part
comprised of liquor ethanol. Ethanol has appeared to murder Covids in just 30
seconds. Like fade, the liquor annihilates the protein and ribonucleic
corrosive (RNA) that the infection is comprised. Saturate a material with a few
slick Surgical spirits and rub it over a surface. This will dissipate and you
won't have to clear it off. Target your home's high-contact surfaces.
The dynamic fixing in bleach is
sodium hypochlorite. It is exceptionally powerful at executing the infection.
Ensure you leave the bleach to labor for 10-15 minutes at that point wipe the
surface with the perfect material. The bleach works by annihilating the protein
and what's known as the ribonucleic corrosive (RNA) of the infection – this is
the substance that gives the plan for making more infection particles when
contaminated. Bleach arrangement is exceptionally powerful at cleaning hard
surfaces. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) disclose how to
make a 0.1% arrangement from family fade on their website. Bleach responds with
and annihilates infection proteins and the infection's hereditary material.
It's essential to shower it on a superficial level and afterward leave it to
represent around 10 minutes for the most extreme impact. It works along these
lines to chlorine fades, responding with and obliterating infection proteins
and hereditary material. Additionally, it ought to be surrendered to represent
ten minutes. It's additionally a smart thought not to blend it in with
different cleaners, especially those containing vinegar. Vinegar and hydrogen
peroxide makes destructive peracetic corrosive and keeping in mind that this is
additionally utilized in certain cleaners, it is anything but a smart thought
to blend it up like this.
The active ingredient in surface
wipes is antiseptic benzalkonium chloride. The wipes work by physically
removing germs through the pressure you apply on the surface, and the germs
then attach to the wipe. They also left a layer of antiseptic on the surface
that kills germs. The antiseptic works well on bacteria as well as on
coronaviruses that infect mice and dogs – but it seems to make no difference to
the spread of human coronavirus. Antiseptics work by disrupting the fats in
pathogen cells, but SARS-CoV-2 does not contain many fats. There is no evidence
that antiseptics can kill human coronaviruses.
In the pandemic situation when the
whole world is fighting with the virus, IoT's made the process easy to handle
the current situations. This time acts as a new opportunity for innovations in
the technologies. With the help of IoT technology, we're able to secure more
patients and can work very safely and fastly in a reliable condition. With the
help of IoT technology and with great communication we can decrease the
infection ratio in a specific region. It very well may be finished up and
recommended that the infection is essentially communicated among individuals
during close contact, frequently through little drops shaped by hacking,
wheezing, and talking. The drops normally tumble to the ground or surfaces,
instead of voyaging significant distances via air. Upheld disease control steps
include customary hand washing, saving actual separation from others
particularly from those having manifestations, isolating especially for those
who have side effects, covering hack, and holding unwashed hands from the nose.
Proposals for face-covering use by the overall population contrast, with a few
offices prompting against them, others supporting against them, and others
permitting their utilization. No proof exists both for and against the
utilization of face covers of solid people in the greater community. There are
neither antibodies accessible nor explicit antiviral medicines by and by
accessible for COVID-19, as indicated by the World Health Organization.
Conflict of Interest:
Authors declares no conflict of interest.