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Author(s): Reena Rawat1

Email(s): 1renunegi2007@gmail.com

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    Department Chemistry, Echelon Institute of Technology, Faridabad, 121101, Haryana, India.

Published In:   Volume - 1,      Issue - 1,     Year - 2021


Cite this article:
Reena Rawat (2021). Role of IoT, web services, and chemical science against coronavirus. Spectrum of Emerging Sciences, 1(1), pp.29-35.

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Spectrum of Emerging Sciences, 1 (1) 2021, 29-35

 

Spectrum of Emerging Sciences

          

 

Journal homepage: https://esciencesspectrum.com

 

Role of IoT, web services, and chemical science against coronavirus

 

Reena Rawata*

a* Department Chemistry, Echelon Institute of Technology, Faridabad, 121101, Haryana, India.                                                                                                                          

 

 

*Corresponding Author:

E-mail Address: renunegi2007@gmail.com

Article available online at: https://esciencesspectrum.com/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2021-1-1-4

 

ARTICLE INFO

 

ABSTRACT

Original Research Article

Received: 11 November 2021

Accepted: 13 November 2021

 

 

KEYWORDS

COVID-19;

IOT,

Web of Sciences,

Technologies.

 

 

As all the industries are growing up with the Internet of Things (IoT). It is the major area of concern nowadays. It plays a vital role in all the major sectors of the world like Economics, Medical Science, Defense Systems, social media, and other prospects to communicate with the people. In current situations which are being faced by the whole world due to the pandemic, IoT is playing a vital role. In the case of COVID-19, IoT-based technologies are being used for monitoring patients to maintain the protocols, different web applications are used for communicating with people and helping them to provide solutions for various problems being faced during quarantine times. Besides IoT, various web services are also playing a vital role in fighting these current situations and other future problems. Various web services are currently being used for the collection of data to find out specific information in a limited region or throughout the whole. These web services also work as a mediator between two different sources. It also helps to communicate with people in large numbers. IoT and web services are complementary to each other. Chemical science also plays important role in covid-19. It helps us in detection, prevention as well as recovery of covid patients.

 


Introduction

The term "Internet of Things" may be defined as a combination of different types of technologies within a network, which works automatically without the help of human interactions. OR, Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the connection established by two internets of computing devices embedded in objects used in day-to-day life enabling them to send and receive data[1]. IoT has gained new limelight in the recent past and also it has gained much convincing research ground as a new topic to be researched in a huge list of academic, industrial, technological, economic, political, and other social aspects too. But in the field of medical sciences [2]. The use of IoT has created a major change in the treatment of people. Diagnosis of every person has become easier than before because the conventional diagnosis systems have been replaced with more personalized systems which make monitoring patients and treatment better than before. IoT is now playing a more important role in medical science and healthcare due to lower expenses of IoT-based devices, much better services than the conventional systems, a very frequent and easily understandable user experience, and various advanced features too[3]. In the case of IoT, there is no limit to the number of devices to be connected. It is all about exchanging data from one device to another or exchanging meaningful information between devices. However, the data has to be interpreted correctly and it needs many other technologies to come hand in hand to work side-by-side. IoT is not just a single type of technology; it is a collection of technologies and domain knowledge.

Innovative work has a basic task to carry out as well– science-based exploration establishments and organizations of all sizes are pulling together their endeavors towards finding more about the infection, creating improved testing advances, and ultimately making an antibody. Many offer administrations or gadgets that as of now utilize forefront compound science to gauge more modest examples, or accomplish higher throughput. Science is fundamental at each progression of our reaction to the infection. In previous research, professionals are given the expert abilities expected to run tests, keep up the gear and oversee lab supplies - including the gifts of synthetics for hand san and security hardware that are going directly to specialists and attendants on the forefronts. Using different chemical compounds, we can protect ourselves like chlorine. Web services may be defined as a collection of various standards and open protocols used for the exchange of data between applications or systems. Various Web Services are training their applications using machine learning to find out various lungs related problems, including diseases like tuberculosis, Asthma, etc., the original solution has been repurposed by organizations for the ongoing pandemic. With the help of various web services and IOTs, the fight between people and governments has become a little easier than the previous times. If we don't have any IOTs and web services as of now, the virus could have been more hazardous than it is now.

In the current scenario and challenges caused by the covid-19 disease. It is one of the biggest outbreaks since the influenza outbreak of 1918 and the SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) outbreak of 2003[4]. According to the reports from the World Health Organization (WHO) as of December 2020, there have been more than 73 million confirmed cases of covid-19 with a huge death rate of around 1.6 million and the numbers are still increasing. The main cause of so many cases is that the virus spreads from person to person. There can be both symptomatic and asymptomatic carriers, which increases the levels of contamination. Therefore, dealing with the coronavirus with the help of IoT technology and web services is a bit more efficient and safer.

In the world, there are several types of viruses that infected people from time to time. They are generated from different sources which affect the people most. These viruses are most dangerous to mankind and other species as they tend to replicate themselves at a very high speed [5]. These viruses also possess tendencies like spreading from animals to humans or vice-versa. To fight against such types of viruses has become easier in today's world than the previous times. If we talk about the previous pandemics generated due to viruses there is no facility to detect the virus, to treat the infected people, to spread awareness in people about pandemics. There is various type of disease that can affect the world at a single time. There have several numbers of which have become a hazard for the world and can be seen from the Influenza virus from 1918 to the covid-19 virus in 2019. When the new flu or disease emerges, it spreads very vastly, In the early phase it is hard to detect and hard to treat because of lack of knowledge about the virus or current strain of the virus[6].

These viruses can be listed as:

In 1976 Ebola Virus:

This virus is also called Ebola hemorrhagic fever. The first outbreak of the Ebola virus spread from the African countries of the Republic of Congo and Sudan. Ebola spreads into persons from tissues of infected humans or animals or contacts to body fluids or blood of infected persons. The Ebola virus appeared as a deadly outbreak in the year 1976. The strain varies dramatically in their deadliness. Sudan Strain is known as the deadliest strain of the Ebola virus having a 71% fatality rate. Treatment of Ebola Using IoT and Web-Services: Treating and supportive care both are used to fight against the Ebola virus. In the current situation, two drugs are approved by the US government for the treatment of the Ebola virus. The first one is Inmazeb which is a combination of three monoclonal antibodies and the second drug is a single monoclonal antibody named Abanga. IoT and Cloud Computing services are more effective which provides remote continuous monitoring of patients. Some of the devices which are used for detection, treatment, and recovery phase, RFID (Radio Frequency Identification Device) and wearable sensor technologies and cloud computing technology are used in all phases[7].

In 1980 HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus): The deadliest virus to date is HIV which appeared as an outbreak in the very 1980s. It is a virus that gets into human beings’ cells. It affects the human immune system especially the T-Cells which helps the body to fight the infection. This virus destroys the T-Cells. Treatment of HIV Using Web-Services and IoT: There is no effective cure for HIV but it can be controlled with proper medical care. Most people can control HIV within 6 months but there are no medicines that prevent the transmission of another sexually transmitted disease. The HIV medicines are called Antiretroviral Therapy (ART).

There is no direct use of IoTs in the treatment of HIV because it spreads only through blood contact or body fluid of an infected person or animal. In this case, cloud computing technology helps to provide information, data and create awareness in people about the deadliness[8].

In 1993 Hanta Virus: This Virus firstly gained attention 1993. The virus is not that contagious as compared to other viruses as It doesn't spread from person to person, whereas it spreads from exposure to the droplets of infected mice to persons. Hanta Virus is prominently known as Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome[9].

In 2002 SARS-CoV: This Virus first gained its attention 2002. This is prominently known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. It is a species of coronavirus that infects humans, bats, and certain other mammals. It is a type of RNA virus. IoT and Web services technology helped to overcome the SARS-CoV in all phases, with IoT gadgets the process to identify or detect, treat is easier. The making of a large number of medicines with the help of IoT technology makes the process easy. The Web-services provide proper data to companies to get proper information about the various guidelines and other aspects to be known about virus[10].

In 2008 Rota Virus: Is a family member of Reoviridae RNA, it is a double-stranded- RNA virus. This is a major disease among children. Mainly infants get a high fatality rate due to this virus. The basic symptoms of the Rota Virus are vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cavity of children. It came into the limelight in 2008. There are several vaccines available for the virus namely RV5 and RV1 in different doses at different times. IoT-based devices help doctors to monitor the patients and record the changes in the body[11]. Also, Web services help to take the record of available information about the virus. We're facing such types of viruses for a very long time. Every 100 years, the world fights with a new virus that is even more dangerous than the previous one. With the IoT and AI, the fight against such types of viruses has become easier as they help people to keep social distancing and take care of other health safety measures without infecting others[12], [13].

IoT and web services play an important role to fight against such types of deadliest viruses in various ways. It helps us to detect, to treat, and to recover the patients from the virus[14]. However, some viruses which were before the covid are more dangerous than this SARS CoV-2. But this covid virus was fought effectively with the help of IoT-based machine learning techniques and AI which helped people to know what are the current safety measures and guidelines decided by the government to get a lower rate of infection[15]. In today's hospitals we use IoT-based devices to treat people from viruses and other diseases such as Ventilators, Nurse Robots, Sanitizing Drones, Mopping Robots, and many more IoT devices like Heart-rate monitors, BP-Machines, Remote-Patient monitoring devices, MRI and ECG machines, Wireless connectivity and cloud computing.

III. Role of IoT for Handling Pandemic Challenges

IoT plays a vital role in handling the challenges due to covid-19. It helps the system to find out COVID patients with the help of smart thermometers and smart thermal cameras. There are a lot of IoTs which are used for communicating and information sharing [16]. It helps to find out the data of different types of stages, different area structures and helps people to find out the containment zones or heavily spread areas. If we divide the whole scenario into three different phases like ‘trace/track’, ‘detect’, and ‘treatment/recovery’ times, and then discuss the role of different IOTs in these phases. In the very first phase, i.e., ‘detect’, we need to generate such processes with which we can identify more people who are infected by the disease. Identifying the infected people rapidly is the only way to overcome the problem of spreading the virus. After identifying the patient and getting information about their travel history, meeting with the people and all [17].

In the second phase quarantine the infected people and ‘trace’ them. The tracing of people who are come in the containment zone or coming in the influence of infected people. With the help of IOTs, the process of sanitizing the infected area and all tracing processes like communicating with people and tracing their health report [18]. In the third phase which is the recovery/treating, phase IoTs play an important role with the treat and communication by the robots. In this phase, the patients are widely monitored by the IoT devices. With the IoT devices, the process of making the medicine and monitoring the results are become easy and faster, only because of the IoTs devices the various multinational companies can make the vaccine and hopefully we getting good results in the future[19].

Detect (The Early Phase): The most important and first phase of diagnosis is the phase of detection. The detection phase helps particulars to identify the rate of infection or at which rate the infection is spreading in a particular region. The detection phase can be done using multiple applications and wearable items, as the lockdown times helped innovators to develop such innovations which can help governments to analyze people's health using the data they got through various IoT-based applications or web services. Detection is carried out easily with these wearable items and applications as it is not a cup of tea to evaluate every person personally or individually. Since the disease covid-19 is a worldly pandemic and not a specific region disease, therefore it makes more use of such items to help clarify the exact data of infected people. There can be various items and applications based on requirements as below:

Smart Helmets:-Smart Helmets have proven that they are safer for any person to use. As the camera on the top of the helmet shows what the temperature of a person is and it automatically stores the data of the person including its location and a picture of the particular. It is of high use for people as it helps people to depict the contaminated person or a person with the same symptoms of the disease covid-19. Even a location history feature can also be injected or implemented in it to check where the infected person went in the recent past.

Smart Goggles: - Smart goggles are another good implementation of IoT over the device. These smart goggles are better than thermometers as there is less human interaction in smart goggles as compared to thermometers. These goggles have inbuilt face recognition and thermal scanning feature which helps people to find infectious or symptomatic people in crowded areas. These goggles have an inbuilt data chip to store the data of persons including their facial data to recognize the person later on. These glasses are highly usable for mass screening of people in contaminated areas.

Smart-Thermometers: These small thermometers are very useful in screening people as they are cheap and are compact and also bear a high level of accuracy in terms of temperature measurement. These thermometers also contain the data of a very large amount of people at a time. These are also useful as they help people to keep social-distancing while checking for their thermal intensity, while in infrared thermometers the people are also less separated from each other. In infrared thermometers it is more likely that the virus spread increase, therefore these thermometers are highly recommended.

 

Fig. 1: Smart Thermometers

Drones: Drones are also highly useful devices as the other devices. In general, it is always necessary to screen a large number of people as faster as possible as it releases the pressure of high contamination and the infected or symptomatic people can also be quarantined at a very early phase. Early detection will lead to a higher recovery rate too. These drones are unmanned aerial vehicles also called UAVs. These decrease the level of human interaction which is a bit more in using of thermometers and also these can be used to screen people in far most areas where humans can’t reach easily. These can be more helpful in speeding up the screening process of people and finding contaminated zones also. Thermal imaging drones can be highly useful in screening people in crowded or highly populated areas.                                                             

Fig 2 Thermal Scanning Drones

 

Robots: According to the dictionary in terms of science fiction A machine that resembles a human and can replicate various human body movements and functionalities automatically. Robots are indeed one of the best inventions to date because it reduces the workload which is needed to be done by humans. As we all are fighting in a very critical situation, robots play a very vital role and help so much in different phases. It works at the places of human beings, so it reduces the overall strain of a human and also reduces the chances of contagiousness of a human from other infected person or patient. These robots also work as communication mediators in different scenarios. The robots play a vital role in every phase of covid time, they avoid human interaction in all the phases. In the detection phase, it helps throughout the testing process; it takes samples from the throat of the people.

Fig. 3 Robots taking the sample from the throat

Track/Trace (The Secondary Phase): Tracking a person is carried out using various techniques or apps to reduce a sudden outbreak of the pandemic. The tracking can be done in various ways using many IoT-based types of equipment or using many other types of web services. The tracking phase can mainly have four types like initialization, sensing, reporting, and tracking the details of an individual. Individual scanning and mass tracing both can be carried out using various IoT-based applications and web services. Individual scanning can be done using some smartphone applications which can help people diagnose themselves by undergoing a symptomatic trial of the disease, while in mass tracing it can be done using various types of surveillance devices, thermal scanners, smart thermometers, and other wearable items and the data can be then used to identify the current situations of individuals.

There are the following things that are mainly used to handle pandemic situations:

Smartphone Applications: With the help of Smartphone applications by using information such as geographic information systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS) both are widely used for tracking and detecting infected people. Many applications are being used by the governments for tracking and communicating with the covid patients. These applications make it easy to track the patients and also their records of travel. With the help of Smartphone applications, the people are easy to find the travel history and the nearest containment zone, and the covid patients near them.

Aarogya Setu: -It has been developed by the Ministry of IT and electronics of GoI (Government of India) for alerts users if they have come in contact with someone who has been corona tested positive. Tracking work is done by Bluetooth and users can get paths for infected persons. Firstly, we have to install the app and after that our mobile phone's Bluetooth and location should be turned on. With the help of this application, we can do self-testing by answering a few questions. After responding to these questions, and if the responses indicate symptoms of covid-19 then the information is sent to the government servers. The app also provides self-quarantine instructions [17].

TraceTogether: TraceTogether is a popular Smartphone app in Singapore that can be downloaded by users having a Bluetooth-enabled Smartphone and a mobile number of Singapore Country. This app uses a contact tracing technique to alert users whether they have been in close contact with anyone positive case in the past two weeks. The application doesn’t collect any data about the users' present location or the data about Wi-Fi/Mobile networks. When two persons are in proximity to each other, both phones will use Bluetooth to exchange a Temporary ID. This Temporary ID is generated by encryption of the User’s ID with a private key held by the Health Ministry (MOH) of Singapore.

CovidWatch: CovidWatch app is developed under the influence of Stanford University, California. This app helps people to keep a keen eye on their privacy and health measures without getting in contact with contagious persons. CovidWatch uses Bluetooth signals to detect people and alarms the person anonymously when are in proximity with a positive person.

The Corona Dataspende: The covid Dataspende application made under the directions of the German government is a coronavirus tracking app that monitors people – body temperature, heart rate, and sleeping patterns also. This app makes use of wearable items like smartwatches or fitness bands to take a look at a person's health.

Fig. 4 Virus tracking Application

Drones: Many types of drones are being used to handle pandemic situations. There are the following special operations that are carried out by the drones during the pandemic situation. The drone technology can reduce the interactions between humans and can also reach hard-to-access locations. In the IoT category of drones, for medical sciences purposes in the case of covid-19, surveillance drones can best fit in the category of tracking. These drones contain thermal scanners and can target a whole crowded area at once or can perform person-to-person surveillance also. These drones contain a data unit of tracked people which can be used to analyze the symptomatic people in the crowd. The working of these drones can be understood by this simple block diagram.

Fig. 1 Constructive model of Drone

A drone is used for surveillance, search, detection, and all others, so for all of the above uses GPS and cameras and for other purposes, it uses high specific CPUs. A quad-copter or drone for completing their purpose consists of the following components: flight controller, RC receiver (remote controller)/transmitter, Raspberry Pi (RPi), Lidar Lite, RF Transmitter, BLDC motor, Camera and Gimbal. The flight Controller acts as a central unit of the overall drone. It takes all the information/commands from all sources and sends them to the ESC (Electronic Speed Controller). ESC can receive speed data from the flight controller and maintain accordingly all the BLDC motors. RF (Radio Frequency) Transmitters are used to transmit the information with the radio frequency. RC receiver is used to control the speed of the BLDC motor. RPI is a wireless small-sized computer with Bluetooth connectivity, which helps to take the information from the camera and pass it to the flight controller which sends it to the ground level. Gimbal is used for camera alignment on the side of their target. Lidar Lite is a range finder that is used for the characteristics of drones like high efficiency, high range, and low noise. It is also used to calculate the height (Altitude) of the quad-copter.

Robots: - During pandemic times robots play a vital role in different types of phases. Robots help medical staff to work away from isolated patients. Some type of robots is used in different processes of medical science like diagnosis, surgeries which can be very helpful for the medical staff. Robots also help in the making of medicines and working in the laboratories which helps the medical staff or scientists to stay away from being captured by the virus. Robots also act as mediators between medical staff and infected people. The basic working of a medical robot can be understood with the help of a simple block diagram.

Fig. 2 Constructive model of Robot.

Robots contain the following components: 2 motors with encoder, one motor driver, ECB (Embedded controller board), Ultrasonic sensor, IMU, PC, Speaker/Mic, Wi-Fi. It contains two motors with encoders that are directly connected with the ECB. An encoder is used to count the number of rotations of the motors. Both motors are driven by the motor driver which is connected directly to the motors and ECB. It gets information about controlling the motor speed. It has two sensors; Ultrasonic sensors are used for sensing the obstacle and measuring the distance from the obstacle, while IMU sensors are used for improving and calculating the odometric calculations. Both sensors are directly connected with the ECB, they directly communicate and give information to the ECB. The ECB is interfaced into a PC, where all the high-end processing takes place. Vision and sound sensors are interfaced with the PC. Wi-Fi is used for remote operations.

Recovery / Treatment (The Ternary Phase): The recovery phase is one of the most important phases in the cycle of a covid patient to be a normal person. In the recovery phase, various things are used for the early treatment of an infected person and after treatment, a lot of things are used in its recovery also. The recovery phase is the most difficult phase which is needed to be implemented at a very faster rate and very frequently too. In this phase, we need to quarantine the infected person for at least a time of 14 days and treat them with needed medications which are done using various IoT-based techniques to reduce the human interaction with the covid patient, also Sanitizing the whole area is also a big challenge. These all challenges are minimized by the use of IoT and web services.

Wearable’s:- After the treatment there is a big challenge to make a safe distance between the people who are working in the offices, for students who are going regularly to their schools and colleges, in such type of conditions there are some wearable IoT based devices which can help to monitor the situation of infected people and other ones too.

Smart Watches and Smart Bands: These are the devices that help continuously to monitor their heart rate, pulse rate, sleeping time, and also measure their body temperature. These IoT devices help people to keep social distancing as well by showing red led lights on their faces whenever people come in close contact in a contaminated place. The smart bands are a combination of various IoTs which senses and capture the data from another device, they are working in a specific radius and they show their presence by LED lights if the person wearing it has less heart rate or pulse rate,  it may be infected from the covid-19 disease. So, with the help of LED lights which are present in the bands. As we see the market of bands and smartwatches is growing drastically after the covid-19 outbreak.

Contiguity Detectors: As all the things are going back to the normal tracks, industries are opening, students are going regularly to schools and colleges, the risk of having contamination among people will increase with the increase of the number of people coming outside of their homes and the chances of decreasing social distancing will also increase. With the help of these contiguity detectors, humans will be able to focus on their work without worrying about getting infected by the virus. These devices sound alarms to inform people when social distancing is not followed or someone is very near.

Fig. 3 Social Distancing Wearable’s

Drones: As the whole pandemic enters its final phase, the role of drones is increasing. The drones have multiple roles in handling the pandemic in multiple scenarios. In this phase, the drones are used for both business and personal purposes, to spread awareness about covid in the people.

Multipurpose drones: Rather than distinguishing the drone into various names, they all can be termed as multipurpose drones. Or it may be defined as it is the combination of all possible categories of drones. These are the following categories of drones

Monitoring Drones: An important point for governments across the world nowadays is to restrict the spread of viruses. To make sure that they are taking proper steps to reduce the person-to-person contact. Most of the countries around the world took favorable measures like the closure of non-essential public places, a ban on mass gatherings of people, and ensuring a social distancing criterion to limit physical contact among persons. Monitoring drones helps a lot in checking whether people are following the necessary restrictions needed to combat the virus.

Delivery Drones: Delivery drones can be used in the logistics of testing samples, delivering results, and medical supplies. Further, drone deliveries can be used for transporting essential goods to people, especially those who are in far-most and isolated areas. Also, it helps people in maintaining physical distancing and also takes less time in delivery as compared to road transportation.

Sanitizing Drones: Sanitizing drones are being used to spray disinfectants through aerial spray. With the help of these drones, the process of sanitizing the area is very safe and fast. Also, these drones limit the increase of human efforts. The drone is filled with sanitizing chemicals and made to take off and spray the disinfectant.

Informative Drones: These drones are used to give information to a crowded region, where people are not following the major restrictions being updated by the government knowingly or unknowingly, by using these drones audio messages can be delivered in regions.

IV. Classification of Robots based on their works during a pandemic:

Receptionist Robots: As the number of patients increases in the world, therefore chances of getting infected or getting in contact with the virus are also increasing. In current conditions schools are also getting opened and everything is getting normal than the lockdown times, receptionist robots are getting used to direct dealing with people in the hospitals and other different places. These robots provide actual data without suffering from the workload and guide patients and visitors about various units/sections of the hospital.

Cleaning/Disinfectant Robots: These types of robots are used for cleaning the various areas of the hospital to keep the hospitals clean and away from infections. These robots are also used to clean the medical types of equipment using vacuum and dry cleaning processes without the fear of being infected. These robots are used to mop a floor using sanitizers or to spray the disinfectant in the whole area.

       Fig. 4 Cleaning and Sanitizing Drone

Nurses/Surgical Robots: During the pandemic where doctors and nurses gets feared while treating the covid patients, a country in Japan invented nurse robots which are used in taking care of patients at the hospitals. These robots also work as a mediator between the patient and the doctor. These robots reduce the chances of getting infected with the virus. These robots also work as an assistant to the doctors in the same way a nurse used to assist.

              Fig. 5 Surgical and Nurses Robots

Since there are various robots for performing various types of roles according to their specifications, below is a list of robots according to their working capabilities and country of origin including the names of their manufacturing companies.

Smartphone Applications: The main role of applications in the ternary phase is providing and sharing their health to the concerned authorities and to the user itself. In this phase, basic applications which are used to check symptoms are used frequently. These applications also provide healthcare tips if the person is symptomatic to the virus or not and if it seems to be symptomatic whatever measures the person should take to get dis-infected from the virus.

HaMagen: This app was introduced by the Ministry of Health of Israel. This application uses contact tracing to keep an eye on the infected people. This app stores data of almost two weeks of the contagious person. This app shares the location history and other information of the infected people with the government. Also, HaMagen redirects the people to the health ministry website if it finds that the person was in close contact with an infected or contagious person.

Stop Corona App: This application was introduced by the health ministry of Croatia. This app gets all the information of the individual about their location, their contact sharing daily. It also helps to submit or get health reports based on the symptoms of a specific person. It also helps the government to find high-risk contaminated zones.

V. Role of Web Service

Tracking Phase:

Web services like www.worldometer.info which is a data over live world statistics on the population of the world, governments of countries and their economics, society, and media, environment, food, water, energy, and health. It also shares interesting statistics with a world population counter clock, forests lost this year, carbon dioxide co2 emission in the atmosphere, world’s hunger report, total energy consumed, and a lot more statistics about various other important aspects of the world and is now helping people to see the real-time analysis of the number of covid cases in a particular area. All the cases are updated frequently and can be seen on the website directly. The website uses JavaScript and HTML5 as its basic programming language and has made the source code open-source for other developers to help them develop apps and websites which can help people with other health-related issues and deal with the covid disease.

Blue-dot global has been harvesting data from various pharma and medical publications across the globe and applying various Artificial Intelligence techniques to that data to identify the changing trends and signals related to the covid-19 disease pandemic. The main aim behind this data harvesting is to take advantage of the big data and to quickly detect any outbreak across the globe, and to anticipate how the outbreak of disease can spread across the world, and also anticipate what can be the major consequences that could be faced by public due to outbreak.

             Fig. 6 World meter and Blue dot

 

Diagnosis Phase: Various companies applied machine learning techniques to analyze human chest x-rays to spot early signs of corona infection. Some innovators also applied AI-based machine learning techniques to identify which X-Ray films are more likely to resemble the covid-19 patients and those should be viewed more quickly by the doctors to decrease the time of treatment of the infected and diagnosed person. E.g. UC San Diego Health Systems also applied this technique.

Recovery/Treatment Phase:-

a)     Web services like symptomate.com and patient.info help people diagnose themselves by providing their details of the symptoms they are having and, after the symptoms are analyzed they get treatment from the specialized doctor related to the symptoms. This way the patient can get treatment directly from the home instead of going to any doctor. These services are offered 24/7 without any queue of people waiting for their appointments.

b)     Many pharmaceutical-based companies have also come across the internet in the form of web services to provide their services to the needy worldwide. Services like netmeds.com, medlife.com, pharmacy, etc have made buying medicines online easier for people. Also to deal with the pandemic they're offering special deals and faster delivery of medicines to the patients. These web services have made a special column for covid patients seeking covid related medicines so that people don't have to seek a prescription from a doctor and can directly consume the medicines to treat themselves in an early stage.

VI. Other helpful aspects of web-services

Various online platforms help to study that how the city centers have been left out without people and the people have started to use online facilities more than offline facilities or going to the stores themselves. Also, these data helped local businesses to grow their business more easily and in a more convenient way. Local businesses are growing day by day online as people are abiding to get out of their homes due to the severe increase in the cases of disease covid-19. Besides, helping the local businesses to grow web services has also helped people to maintain social distancing and other important measures that are needed to keep the virus away from one's body can also be sustained. Countries have asked binge-watching platforms like Netflix, Prime Video, and Hot star, and other streaming platforms to deduce their premium streaming plans by which they can ask people to stay at home as long as possible. Also deducing the prices has increased the number of subscribers of each of the streaming platforms and a lesser strain is now on both the governments and people as well.

VII. Role of Chemical science

Chloroquine

This is the drug that president of the US Donald Trump has declared "very powerful" with “ very encouraging  results.” After an announcement US government, the pharmaceutical company has agreed to donate more than six million doses of hydroxychloroquine sulfate tablets—a less toxic metabolite of chloroquine—to hospitals across the country. It is approved to treat malaria and rheumatoid arthritis. When it has been tested in vitro against viruses, including SARS, and found to inhibit growth. There was no benefit has been seen in animal models.3In a limited way, the drug has been tested against SARS-CoV-2—the cause of covid-19—and has reportedly been found “highly effective,” although the evidence is still limited, with much of the data unpublished. While the early results are “promising” they have “yet to be fully scrutinized, and, of course, it is essential to conduct other, larger controlled trials to determine accurately the effectiveness of chloroquine as a treatment for covid-19. But in among the oppressive darkness of the current situation, any glimmer of hope is very welcome.”The mode of action against covid-19 has not been established, there are three different ways chloroquine—which acts to neutralize acids—could potentially work. Numerous infections enter have cells through a cycle called endocytosis. This implies that the infection is at first taken up into an intracellular 'compartment' that is ordinarily acidic. Chloroquine would modify the acridity of this compartment, which can meddle with the capacity of infections to escape into the host cell and begin duplicating. Another chance is that chloroquine may modify the capacity of the infection to tie to the outside of a host cell in any case, which is a fundamental initial step for section. Finally, chloroquine effects affect a wide assortment of safe cells. Hence, the medication is now and again utilized in immune system conditions like lupus or rheumatoid joint inflammation. One of these impacts may invigorate the body's capacity to ward off Coronavirus.

May added that as chloroquine has a “long history of clinical use, the safety profile is well established, and it is cheap and relatively easy to manufacture, so it would—theoretically—be fairly easy to accelerate into clinical trials and, if successful, eventually into treatment.”[22]

Kaletra

Kaletra is a mix of two antiviral medications—lopinavir and ritonavir—typically used to treat HIV. Lopinavir was recognized after the 2003 SARS episode as an expected treatment. Persuading proof regarding its impact, in any case, was deficient. As of late, analysts from China tried the adequacy and security of oral lopinavir-ritonavir for SARS-CoV-2 disease through a randomized controlled preliminary yet discovered "no advantage" past standard care."Whether joining lopinavir-ritonavir with other antiviral specialists, as has been done in SARS and is being concentrated in MERS-CoV, may upgrade antiviral impacts and improve clinical results stays to be resolved," the scientists closed. Another preliminary taking a gander at the viability of lopinavir-ritonavir, just as low portion dexamethasone (a steroid used to lessen aggravation), has recently begun. The preliminary group has said it will persistently survey data on new medications and will remember promising ones for the preliminary. On the off chance that Kaletra is discovered to be powerful as a Coronavirus treatment, nations will want to purchase conventional types of it after drug organization AbbVie declared that it won't authorize its worldwide patent rights on the medication.[23]

Surgical spirit   

Surgical spirit is for the most part comprised of liquor ethanol. Ethanol has appeared to murder Covids in just 30 seconds. Like fade, the liquor annihilates the protein and ribonucleic corrosive (RNA) that the infection is comprised. Saturate a material with a few slick Surgical spirits and rub it over a surface. This will dissipate and you won't have to clear it off. Target your home's high-contact surfaces.

Bleach

The dynamic fixing in bleach is sodium hypochlorite. It is exceptionally powerful at executing the infection. Ensure you leave the bleach to labor for 10-15 minutes at that point wipe the surface with the perfect material. The bleach works by annihilating the protein and what's known as the ribonucleic corrosive (RNA) of the infection – this is the substance that gives the plan for making more infection particles when contaminated. Bleach arrangement is exceptionally powerful at cleaning hard surfaces. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) disclose how to make a 0.1% arrangement from family fade on their website. Bleach responds with and annihilates infection proteins and the infection's hereditary material. It's essential to shower it on a superficial level and afterward leave it to represent around 10 minutes for the most extreme impact. It works along these lines to chlorine fades, responding with and obliterating infection proteins and hereditary material. Additionally, it ought to be surrendered to represent ten minutes. It's additionally a smart thought not to blend it in with different cleaners, especially those containing vinegar. Vinegar and hydrogen peroxide makes destructive peracetic corrosive and keeping in mind that this is additionally utilized in certain cleaners, it is anything but a smart thought to blend it up like this.

Surface Wipes

The active ingredient in surface wipes is antiseptic benzalkonium chloride. The wipes work by physically removing germs through the pressure you apply on the surface, and the germs then attach to the wipe. They also left a layer of antiseptic on the surface that kills germs. The antiseptic works well on bacteria as well as on coronaviruses that infect mice and dogs – but it seems to make no difference to the spread of human coronavirus. Antiseptics work by disrupting the fats in pathogen cells, but SARS-CoV-2 does not contain many fats. There is no evidence that antiseptics can kill human coronaviruses.

VIII. Conclusion

In the pandemic situation when the whole world is fighting with the virus, IoT's made the process easy to handle the current situations. This time acts as a new opportunity for innovations in the technologies. With the help of IoT technology, we're able to secure more patients and can work very safely and fastly in a reliable condition. With the help of IoT technology and with great communication we can decrease the infection ratio in a specific region. It very well may be finished up and recommended that the infection is essentially communicated among individuals during close contact, frequently through little drops shaped by hacking, wheezing, and talking. The drops normally tumble to the ground or surfaces, instead of voyaging significant distances via air. Upheld disease control steps include customary hand washing, saving actual separation from others particularly from those having manifestations, isolating especially for those who have side effects, covering hack, and holding unwashed hands from the nose. Proposals for face-covering use by the overall population contrast, with a few offices prompting against them, others supporting against them, and others permitting their utilization. No proof exists both for and against the utilization of face covers of solid people in the greater community. There are neither antibodies accessible nor explicit antiviral medicines by and by accessible for COVID-19, as indicated by the World Health Organization.

Conflict of Interest:

Authors declares no conflict of interest.




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