and Solidification: A solution to the excessive pollution released by The INEOS
a* South Forsyth High
School, Cumming, GA, 30041.
E-mail Address: firstname.lastname@example.org
online at: https://esciencesspectrum.com/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2022-2-1-4
1 August 2022
8 August 2022
INEOS Neville Plant is located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and is known for
manufacturing olefins and polypropylene. Since it is a manufacturing plant
producing many kinds of wastes including chemical spills and toxic waste. The
amount of pollutants released into the nearby Ohio river is harmful to the aquatic environment. Incorrect disposal
of toxic waste is one of the most significant causes of the numerous types of
pollutants resulting from this plant. Correct disposal of toxic waste
includes dumping all this waste into a landfill which protects groundwater
and surface water. Such disposal is recommended by the EPA and based on the
prediction the SWSS could be a viable solution. Solidification and
Stabilization refer to a method of cleanup that slows the release of
chemicals from waste in this case which may include ammonia and sulfur
dioxide and nitrogen. Based on all these factors, our prediction is that this
manufacturing issue of environmental pollution will not come to a fix, even
with the wastewater treatment plant nearby.
INEOS Neville Plant is located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and is known for
manufacturing olefins and polypropylene. Olefins are alkenes which is any
hydrocarbon containing one or more bonds while polypropylene is a synthetic
compound used to create ropes and fabrics(1).
In simpler terms, The INEOS plant produces and manufactures polymers that are
used in constructing pharmaceuticals and pipes(2).
The problem with this plant is that this facility has exceeded pollution limits
over a thousand times - the highest in the nation, which makes this a national
issue. The amount of pollutants released into the nearby Ohio river is harmful
to both the aquatic environment and recreational activities that might take
place near the factory(3).
Pollution including, chemical spills and disposal of toxic waste, harms the
aquatic environment by disturbing the predation cycle and acidifying rain. This
plant breached health and safety conditions as it got a notice for violation of
not following ‘Waste Analysis Plan’. The plant had not been disposing their waste properly which
has led to such excess waste and as a result more than needed air pollution(4).
Furthermore the pollution from this plant affects nearby vulnerable communities
like McKees Rocks and Stowe. Even though the Neville Plant meets long term air
quality standards proposed by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) the
short term effects of air pollution is often too much for the citizens to
We see the same pattern with the
Shenango Coke Factory which operated in the east end of Neville Island (Figure
1). However this factory was shut down in 2016 due to excess air pollution. The
air pollution affected an air shed that was already saturated by numerous air
The residents of Allegheny County expressed their concerns over the plant's
poor air quality. This poor air quality was evidenced by increased levels of
dust and other pollutants from emission released from Shenango’s smoke stacks.
Furthermore this was captured by air monitoring equipment and by cameras. To
sum it up, the factory was shut down due to protests as the community
surrounding it wished to retain the improved air quality.
Figure 1: The Shenango Coke Factory’s location and its
heavily affected townships.
most significant problem associated with the INEOS Neville Plant was excess
pollutants that were released into the environment. These pollutants include
air, water and noise pollution along with toxic waste. Air pollution includes
releases to gasses like carbon monoxide which is released in the manufacturing
of polyurethane and other plastics which is. Another substance released is ground
ozone by this plant which is known as ground smog and it accumulates in the
lower levels of the atmosphere and causes significant health issues. Pollutants
released from this plant are dumped into the nearby Ohio River as waste
execution is not regulated(6).
As far as noise pollution goes, multiple citizens in the surrounding area often
complain of the unbearable noises that emanate from this plant. Citizens
thought that the factories’s noise issues would be gone after the demolition of
the Shenango Coke factory (Figure 2) but they describe INEOS’s noises as “screeching sound
of crunching metal and occasional explosions'' that is heard “across the river
from Metalico, only seemed to get worse”.
Lastly toxic waste is usually difficult to dispose of and can pose serious
problems as they pose a biological hazard. The radioactive substances that
originate from this are usually exposed to radioactive elements and can contaminate soil and water. In this
case the soil and water would be the one near the Pittsburgh Area and Ohio
river in Pennsylvania. As a result of all these different types of pollution,
two main aspects of the environment were harmed: the aquatic environment and
air quality. The owners of this manufacturing plant completely disregarded
multiple violations that were inflicted upon this plant. It is seen that the INEOS had not been following
the analytical method specified in the WAP since it first began performing
analyses. WAP is the Windsor Assembly Plant which sets the protocols,
especially ones about waste disposal, that is expected to be followed by
Figure 2: Location of the Shenango
Coke Factory and INEOS Neville Island Plant and their proximity to the
nearest wastewater treatment plant.
disposal of toxic waste is one of the most significant causes of the numerous
types of pollutants resulting from this plant. Correct disposal of toxic waste
includes dumping all this waste into a landfill which protects groundwater and
surface water. Such disposal is recommended by the EPA (Environmental
Based on the statistics acquired from google maps the closest waste management
service to the INEOS plant (Figure 3) is the ‘MAX Environmental Technologies’
which is just 7.8 miles from the plant. The plant never made use of this and as
a result is suffering from many violations and protests from community members.
As expected the Shenango Coke factory also did not dispose of their waste in a
proper fashion as the EPA had quite a few concerns with it. Groundwater was
found contaminated at this facility with benzene, chloroform, naphthalene,
arsenic and manganese, thus the soil was potentially contaminated with these
same contaminants. A decade before the factory was closed down it did however
meet the Current Human Exposures Under Control environmental indicator as
indicated by the EPA.
3: A picture of the INEOS Neville Plant manufacturing site.
right path for disposal would be that the waste would have to be first
generated by the factory. This toxic waste could be harmful byproducts created
from the olefins and polypropylene manufacturers at INEOS(8).
Next the waste should have been transported to MAX Environmental Technologies
in Pittsburgh, PA. Lastly, the disposal should have been left to this waste
management company as MAX uses Solid Waste Stabilization and Solidification
(SWSS) systems to treat high volumes of soils, sludges and debris delivered in
bulk or containers from nearby manufacturing plants. This process involves
mixing a waste with a binding agent, like cement or clay, which is a substance
that makes loose materials stick together. Then this mixture is buried into the
ground where it takes up to months to fully decompose. This process is safe and
effective as these materials do not pose a threat to workers or the community.
Which goes to show that if this method was pursued by the INEOS plant it would
have not only led to less pollution but less harm to the air quality and the
on the prediction that the SWSS (Figure 4) could be a viable solution this
section will evaluate this solution’s viability in context of the INEOS Neville
plant. Solidification and Stabilization refer to a method of cleanup that slows
the release of chemicals from waste in this case which may include ammonia and
sulfur dioxide and nitrogen. It works by binding the waste into a solid block
which causes a chemical reaction that makes the pollutants less likely to be
spilled back into the environment(9).
This process usually takes weeks or even several months to compete and is
dependent on quite a few factors. These include the size of the contaminated
area, density of the soil, and even climate at times. This process is safe
because of multiple factors. The strength of the solidified block is tested to
make sure that the chemicals do not leak. This process does not pose a major
threat to employees and the environment if carried out with safety measures
kept in mind. One downside of this is that citizens may notice higher truck
traffic as materials are transported to the site or from it. Once these
equipment are done being used, the land does have to be redeveloped again in
order to prove viable for the citizens to further industrialize it.
An example to prove that these
solutions can be implemented is seen by the Superfund site in Arkansas. This
process was used at this site in the 1960s when the area was contaminated with
wastes such as pesticides and lead. Cranes or ‘earth-moving’ equipment were
used to inject cement into the waste area. The additives were then added to
help solidify the material which was then covered. Further inspects in the
2000s showed that human health, in the nearby cities of the site in Arkansas,
was healthy. Furthermore, due to this process, in a few decades, the site's
label as the most hazardous waste site was eradicated.
prediction is that this manufacturing issue of environmental pollution will not
come to a fix, even with the wastewater treatment plant nearby. This is mainly
because of the pollutants that this plant releases. The pollutants it releases
are primary pollutants like ammonia, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. This
is since there are a lot of other businesses surrounding the plant which
attract customers. The issue of air pollution from the plant can also affect
these people and can be harmful to safely dispose of the toxic waste excreted
by the plant(10).
Figure 4: Broad explanation of how the
process of Solidification and Stabilization work(11)
the INEOS manufacturing plant is located on an island so it would be hard to
ship the waste to a different location (Figure 5). Thus, INEOS would still have
to continue dumping its waste into the Ohio lake(12).
This would impact the aquatic environment in Ohio lake and the drinking water
for people. For these reasons, we predict that the manufacturing issue in the
INEOS plant will end up with the INEOS plant coming to a shut down, similar to
the Shenango plant that preceded it.
Figure 5: A side view of the INEOS Neville Island
on our causes and predictions the most safe and probable decision for this
plant would be to be closed down quite like the Shenango Coke Factory. The INEOS
Neville plant mainly manufactures olefins and polypropylene. Pollutants include
chemical spills and disposal of toxic waste.
The problem leads to air pollution and noise pollution and such kinds of
pollution not only leads to citizens voicing for a cleaner environment but also
leads to deprivation of oxygen and other nutrients in water bodies near the
Ohio river. Furthermore the incorrect process of such toxic water can also lead
to a potential of biological hazard in the nearby environments.
main cause for these excessive pollutants in the nearby city of Pittsburgh is
the incorrect disposal of not just any kind of waste but especially toxic
waste. Correct disposal would include going to the nearby wastewater treatment
plant and taking advantage of their SWSS system. If such a process was followed
the waste would not only be disposed of rightly but it would also lead to a
more purer air quality as coined by nearby citizens. Even if this process was
put to use it would not be as effective as closing the factory because the
damage done is already too much to reverse. Based on these factors we think
that these processes will not come to an end especially considering the kinds
of pollutants this plant releases which ranges from ammonia to sulfur dioxide. We
also believe that since this plant is located on an island it will be even
harder to dispose of the waste in an orderly fashion due to high transportation