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Author(s): Ruchi Sharma1



    Department of Chemistry, GGD SD college, Palwal, Haryana, India.

Published In:   Volume - 2,      Issue - 1,     Year - 2022

Cite this article:
Ruchi Sharma (2022).Study of etnano-medicinal plant of Himachal Pradesh. Spectrum of Emerging Sciences, 2(1), pp. 29-35.

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Spectrum of Emerging Sciences, 1 (2) 2022, 29-35


Spectrum of Emerging Sciences



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Study of etnano-medicinal plant of Himachal Pradesh

Ruchi Sharmaa*

a* Department of Chemistry, GGD SD college, Palwal, Haryana, India.


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Original Research Article

Received:  30 July 2022

Accepted:  18 August 2022









Himachal Pradesh,

Medicinal plant,



The Indian state of Himachal Pradesh may be found in the region of the country known as the Himalayan foothills. Because of the state's unique geography and altitude, it is subject to a wide variety of temperatures, which in turn allows for a wide variety of plant life to flourish across the state. As a result of the broad altitudinal range that it spans, the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh is home to a wide variety of different species, habitats, groups, populations, and ecosystems. It is believed that the state of Himachal Pradesh is home to more than 3,400 unique types of flora and fauna. More than a thousand distinct plant species that have been identified as aromatic or useful may be found thriving in Alaska's temperate forests, Shiwalik hills, alpine and sub-alpine pastures, and other regions of the state. The bulk of the people who reside in Himachal Pradesh are descended from a wide range of distinct cultures and ethnic groups; as a result, each of these groups have its own unique body of indigenous knowledge. Traditional and rural civilizations are obliged to rely largely on the plants that are already native to the region since there is limited access to contemporary medical services in rural areas, particularly in high-altitude areas. This survey will be beneficial to medical practitioners as well as the pharmaceutical industry in terms of strengthening public health facilities and maintaining the continuous growth of wild medicinal plant species in the region that is the subject of the current research.



Himachal Pradesh is a state in India that is located in the Western Himalaya and has an elevation that spans from 350 metres to 7000 metres above mean sea level. The area is known for its hilly terrain (amsl). It spans a total area of 55,673 square kilometres over its landmass. This hilly condition may be found in the North Western Himalayan region between the coordinates of 30 degrees 22 minutes 44 seconds north and 33 degrees 12 minutes 44 seconds north, as well as 75 degrees 45 minutes 44 seconds east and 79 degrees 04 minutes 20 seconds east. It is home to a wealth of natural resources as well as an extensive history of ethno botanical flora. The Shivalik, also known as the outer Himalaya, the mid-hills, and the bigger Himalaya, also known as the high altitude zone, are the three distinct locations that combine to form the state of Himachal Pradesh. The greater Himalaya is also known as the high altitude zone. The term "mid hill" refers to the region of Himachal Pradesh that extends from a height of 1,500 metres to 3,500 metres above mean sea level. The Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh is one of the numerous districts that are included in this region. In addition to the plethora of medicinal and aromatic plants that can be found in this neighbourhood, there is also an abundance of the historical knowledge that is associated with those plants.

Since ancient times, the local communities have relied mostly on endemic plants for their day-to-day necessities, such as food, fodder, and cures for a range of ailments. This dependence on endemic plants has continued until modern times. This reliance may be traced all the way back to primordial times. The gathering and recording of traditional wisdom has resulted in the invention of a number of major medications that are now used in the modern world. Traditional knowledge is not being passed down from older generations to more recent generations in the same way that it once was, which puts the preservation of this information in peril. As a consequence of this, doing ethno botanical research in order to maintain traditional knowledge is absolutely necessary in order to successfully use biological resources and safeguard them.

The district of Chamba may be found in the most northwestern part of the state of Himachal Pradesh. It is located in northerly latitude of 32 degrees 11 minutes 30 seconds to 33 degrees 13 minutes 06 seconds and an easterly longitude of 75 degrees 49 minutes 00 seconds to 77 degrees 03 minutes 30 seconds. Its surface area is estimated to be 6,528 square kilometres. Mountains dominate the landscape everywhere you look, with heights varying from from 600 to 6,400 metres over the whole region. The Gaddis and the Gujjars are the two indigenous peoples who make up the majority of this region's population (Figure 3). The Gaddis, who are a semi-nomadic tribe, are the people who farm sheep and goats, and the Gujjars are the people who reside in Siunta, Banikhat, and the portions of Himachal Pradesh that border the plains. The Gujjars are the people who have lived in these areas for generations. These nomads choose to live in the higher elevations during the warmer months of the year and move down to lower elevations when the temperature drops. These indigenous people are the custodians of indigenous traditional knowledge that is tied to the ecological resources that are situated within their local surroundings. Since a very long time ago, they have been incorporating the usage of these resources into their day-to-day operations in order to accomplish a wide range of goals. Because of the region's wide range of climatic conditions and elevational gradients, it is home to a remarkable variety of plant life. There are around two thousand different kinds of flowering plants that may be discovered in this location. In addition to conducting research on the floristic variety of the region and conducting an inventory of the plant resources available there, many employees were also responsible for documenting the traditional knowledge pertaining to the plants. This was done in addition to conducting research on the floristic variety of the region.

The work that is being done now is an extra attempt to better such investigations and to make additions to the exploitation of some of the plant species that have not been reported in the past as coming from the research location. In addition, the present study was initiated in the area with the purpose of discovering educated persons and accumulating information on the utilization of medicinal plants. This was done in the hope of improving future research.


  1. The study was conducted to evaluate the traditional applications of plants as medicines.
  2. To research etna-medical plants in the Himalayan region of Uttarakhand.


Study area

The site of the research may be found in the Pangi valley, and its precise coordinates are as follows: 30° 48' North, 33° 13' North, 76° 15' East, and 76° 47' East. There are three unique Forest Ranges that can be found over the complete area of 1,503 km2 that make up the valley. These ranges are the Killar, Sach, and Purthi ranges, and they are divided by the Killar Range. In terms of its location, the tract covers the area of the Chamba district that is located farther to the northeast. A protrusion known as Trishul Dhar, which can be found to the north of it, serves as a barrier between it and the Paddar area of Jammu and Kashmir. On the southern side, one can find a ridge that links Ghor Dhar Jot and continues all the way up to Dhandal Dhar, which is where it meets the range of Pir Panjal. This ridge can be found connecting Ghor Dhar Jot to Dhandal Dhar. The eastern range extends to the point where it touches the Zanskar range, which is a component of the primary Himalayas.


An exhaustive field survey of the entire Pangi valley was carried out during the course of the research. The survey started at the lower elevation of Findroo (2000 metres), continued on to Killar (2500 metres), Praygra (2560 metres), Dharwas (2710 metres), Chaloli (2900 metres), Sural (3000 metres), Bhatori (3500 metres), Blasot Dhar (4400 metres), and Chanat Dhar, and extended as high as 5000 metres in elevation above mean sea level.

In order to make the process of identification simpler, the collection of the voucher specimens took place during the flowering and fruiting stages of the plant. This ensured that the specimens collected were representative of the species. The collected specimens were dried, assigned a field book number, and kept as a permanent record at the Herbarium of the Department of Forest Products at the Dr. YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry in Nauni, Solan. This institution is located in the state of Solan. The specimens were identified based on the field characters that were observed and noted during the collection process. In addition, a comparison was made with the specimens that are currently housed in the Herbarium of the Department of Forest Products, and various floras were consulted in order to verify that the specimens had the correct identity. It was necessary to do this in order to guarantee that the specimens were of the appropriate species.

Ethno botanical studies

In order to assemble information regarding the ethnomedicinal importance of the plants that were collected, discussions were held with local elders, hermits, shepherds, Vaids, and Gaddies. The local name (or names) of the plants, the portion of the plant that was utilised, the reason for which it was used, the manner of administration, and its therapeutic capabilities are all included in this material. On the basis of the information that was collected, a list of the plants and the traditional uses of those plants was compiled.


The ethno botanical information of 45 plant species belonging to 41 genera and 20 families that have been historically utilised by the residents of the intended research region has been documented. These plants have been used for a variety of purposes, such as food, medicine, and other household items (Table 1; Figure 1). The knowledge that has been documented ethno botanically about these plants also includes this information. In order to treat a wide range of major and minor diseases that are common among the people who live in and around this tribal territory, these plant species are sometimes utilised routinely and other times just on an ad hoc basis. The indigenous people of this region have a strong faith in the curative powers of these plants, as well as those of Tantra and Mantra, which involve the recitation of certain phrases in order to cast a spell; however, the knowledge of these practises is only held by a select group of extremely elderly individuals. There are certain hermits who have the solid conviction and opinion that when they sit in meditation, the medicinal plants will talk with them and teach how to utilise them. These hermits have this idea and conviction despite the fact that they have no evidence to support their claim. This way of thinking and believing has been handed down from one generation to the next. Similar studies were reported on the traditional uses of fifty ethnomedicinal plants by the tribal people of the Prakasam district in the state of Andhra Pradesh, as well as on the use of fifty-four ethnomedicinal plants by the rural and tribal people of the Shetrunjaya Hills in the state of Gujarat, and on some medicinal plants of the Parvati valley in the state of Himachal Pradesh. All of these communities are located in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, and Hima The majority of these plants, which were documented in the current study, are used in their natural form since it has been established that they are useful in treating a wide range of ailments, such as jaundice, fever, dysentery, and so on. These plants are used in their unprocessed form. It has been demonstrated on several occasions that people in different parts of the country employ herbs that are indigenous to their region as a kind of complementary or alternative medicine to treat a wide range of conditions, and this practise has been recorded on multiple occasions.

Because they are physically located in closer proximity to the natural world, those who live in tribal communities have a greater understanding of the ways in which nature works. Studies conducted by a variety of workers on the Gujjar tribe in the Saharanpur district of Uttar Pradesh and on the Gaddis, a tribal community in the Kangra valley in Himachal Pradesh also revealed that these people use herbal-based powders, paste, aqueous extracts, decoctions, and other medicinal preparations to treat a variety of illnesses in both humans and animals. The Gujjar tribe is located in Uttar Pradesh, and the Gaddis are located in Himachal Pradesh (Khanna and Ramesh, 2000; Singh and Kaushal, 2000). Additionally, it has been documented that the local ladies and hamlets of Banjar, which is located in the Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh, utilise the medicinal properties of 34 different plant species (Natrajan et al., 2000). Dharchula regions of Kumon in district Pithoragarh of Uttrakhand and on ethno medicinal applications of plant species in Mizoram have also found similar results. Both of these studies were conducted in Mizoram. These findings are likely to be relevant in the years to come and play an essential part. These herbal treatments provide the body's organs the strength they require to function correctly, and because they have few negative side effects, they do not interfere with the operation of any of the body's other subsystems. In contrast to modern medicine, which interferes with a number of metabolic processes within the human body and frequently results in undesired side effects that make the person more susceptible to illness, traditional herbal treatment has recently gained popularity in industrialised nations. This is because modern medication disrupts a number of metabolic processes within the human body. There are still numerous living groups of people in India that remain more or less isolated from the impact of the modern world, despite the fact that India is one of the most significant reservoirs of ethno-botanical riches in the world. These people continue to live in close contact with vegetation and derive the majority of their daily sustenance from the natural flora that surrounds them. As a consequence of this, India is considered to be one of the most significant countries in the world with regard to the maintenance of the globe's ethno-botanical variety.






Figure 1. a) ARNEBIE BENTHAM (Wall.ex G. Don.) Ratanjot Johnston b) Engl. Shamlot Berginia stracheyi (Hook F. & Thomas) c) Veerbuti with Meconopsis aculeata Royle d) Panja: Dactylorhiza hatagirea D. Don

Table 1: Indian tribal people in the Pangi Valley, District Chamba, employ ethno medicinal plants.




Since the beginning of human culture, plants and objects produced from plants have played a significant role in enriching human culture. This has been the case since the beginning of human civilization. There is a potential that ethnobotany was the first science to arise at the same time as people began to develop or live on our planet. If this is the case, it would make perfect sense. In times past, it was normal practise to make use of medicinal herbs in their raw form, which included freshly squeezed juice, paste, boiling extract, or powdered form. This was done in order to obtain the maximum benefit from the plant. However, as a result of the progression of civilization, these plants have gradually made their way into medical practise in the form of easily ingestible preparations such as decoctions, herbal tea, tablets, syrups, tinctures, and steam distillates, amongst other things. These forms have made them more acceptable to the general public.


In order to forestall the depletion of medicinal plant resources and prevent their eventual extinction, the recent research suggests that certain management actions should be carried out in collaboration with the participation of local communities. These actions could be carried out via the village administrative council, for example. These steps need to be followed in order to protect the medicinal plant resources that are available. It is of the highest significance to educate local residents on a comprehensive basis about the sustainable exploitation of medicinal plant riches in hillside management for plant resources. This may be accomplished by educating and training them in the appropriate skills. In conclusion, the findings of the current study recommend doing scientific validation and toxicity testing on the reported medicinal herbs that have been utilised in traditional medicine to treat a range of illnesses that affect cattle.

Conflict of interest:

Authors declares no conflicts of interest.

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Author(s): Ruchi Sharma

DOI: 10.55878/SES2022-2-1-5         Access: Open Access Read More