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Author(s): Akhlad Kadri1, Ajaharudin Ansari2, Alok Gond3



    IIMT College of Engineering, Greater Noida, UP, India

Published In:   Volume - 3,      Issue - 1,     Year - 2023

Cite this article:
Akhlad Kadri, Ajaharudin Ansari, Alok Gond Design Optimization of Smart Wheelchair using MEMS Sensor Spectrum of Emerging Sciences, 3 (1) 2023, 17-21. 10.55878/SES2023-3-1-3

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Since quite some time, the development and advancement of technology has an impact on a few aspects of our lives and will continue to do so in the future with more capability and unanticipated development. In our initiative, we tried to establish a link between the development of technology and the requirement for human comfort [1]. The primary goal of this research is to steer a wheelchair using human control. This project is primarily intended for those with physical disabilities who rely on wheelchairs, especially those who can't use their hands to drag their wheelchair due to an impairment. We employed a head motion module in our system to detect the user's motion and regulate the direction of the wheelchair [2].

People with quadriplegia are unable to utilise any of their extremities. There are a variety of causes for such reduced mobility possibilities, including paralysis, congenital deformities, arthritis, stroke, high blood pressure, and degenerative disorders of the bones and joints. Quadriplegia can also develop as a result of accidents or aging. Those who have such severe disabilities are unable to conduct basic tasks like eating, using the bathroom, and moving about [3]. With various medical gadgets, a patient can maintain mobility to a certain extent according to the severity of their handicap.

This paper describes the development of a head movement-controlled microcontroller system for conventional electric wheelchairs. A prototype of the system is put into use, and it is then experimentally tested. The prototype is made comprised of a digital system, an accelerometer, a microprocessor, and a mechanical actuator [4]. The accelerometer is used to obtain information regarding head movements. A novel technique is developed that makes use of a microcontroller to analyse the sensor data [5]. The mechanical actuator, which is attached to the output of the digital system, moves the wheelchair joystick in response to user commands. The microcontroller creates a cutting-edge algorithm to process sensor data [6]. As a result, the user's head movements on an electric wheelchair dictate where the joystick is located. Numerous varieties of conventional devices can be employed with the mechanical actuator. The system's capacity to identify a user's command accurately is confirmed through the experiment that was carried out [7]. The experiment's results are presented and discussed in this paper. Fig.1 displays a block diagram of the system. 


The wheelchair is a device that elderly and disabled people use for transportation. There are a few different types of intelligent wheelchairs on the market. It may be extremely difficult or impossible for a patient to use a standard type of framework in specific circumstances, such as when they have ALS or Parkinson disease and have total loss of movement. Motion in the area, eye location, voice recognition, brain waves, and other elements all have an impact on them. A self-propelled manual wheelchair typically has two small caster wheels up front and two large wheels in back, together with a casing, seat, and perhaps a couple footplates (footstools). They created the hardware and software for the control system. The ability to adjust posture and drive a wheelchair using voice commands has been realised. The hardware circuit and software programme have been tested and debugged, and the voice control wheelchair recognition rates for the same individual are satisfactory. But because it can distinguish between so many different voices, it can't be used in busy areas [8].



Head movement serves as an input signal to the wheelchair, causing it to move in the desired direction. These motions are tracked using a MEMS sensor. This sensor is attached to the head's cap. The micro-controller receives these signals as inputs after trapping the fluctuations. The microcontroller is now designed to make judgements based on these variations, which influence how the wheelchair moves.

A chair will move to the right or left if a person tilts their head to the right or left from above [9].



The programmable microcontroller board known as Arduino UNO is inexpensive, adaptable, and simple to use for use in a range of electrical applications. In addition to being able to control relays, lights, servos, and motors as an output, this board can connect with other Arduino boards, Arduino shields, and Raspberry Piboards.


Fig. 2 -Ardino UNO

3.2 ESP8266 ESP-01

Access to wireless networks is provided to microcontrollers by the ESP8266 ESP-01 Wi-Fi module. The ESP-01 behaves as a minicomputer, therefore it serves as its own SOC (System on a Chip) and doesn't necessarily need a microcontroller to manage inputs and outputs like you would normally do with an Arduino, for example. Depending on the version, an ESP8266 may have up to nine GPIOs (General Purpose Input Output). So, we may either programme the ESP8266 to function as both a microcontroller and a Wi-Fi network access point, or we can give a microcontroller internet connectivity similar to what the Wi-Fi shield does for the Arduino. As a result, the ESP8266 has a wide range of applications and can assist you in saving cash and space in your projects [10-11].

Fig 3- ESP8266 ESP-01



These RF Transmitter Modules are extremely compact and operate within a wide voltage range (3V-12V). Signals up to 100 meters can be sent using the inexpensive RF transmitter. It is beneficial for the development of battery-powered, short-range devices. These wireless receivers and transmitters are compatible at 315 MHz. They work well with microcontrollers to build a relatively straightforward wireless data link, and they are breadboard friendly.

Fig 4- RF transmitter


Radio frequency (RF) receivers are technological tools that distinguish radio waves from one another and transform particular waves into audio, video, or data formats. An antenna is used by RF receivers to pick up transmitted radio signals, and a tuner is used to distinguish one particular signal from all the others.

Fig. 5- RF receiver



Instruments that measure angular velocity include gyro sensors. Angular rate sensors and angular velocity sensors are other names for them. The change in rotational angle per unit of time is known as angular velocity. The standard angular velocity measurement is degrees per second (deg/s). A gyroscope sensor is a device that can measure and keep track of an object's orientation and angular velocity. Compared to accelerometers, these are more recent. Although they can only track linear motion, accelerometers can assess an object's tilt and lateral orientation.

For gyroscope sensors, the words "angular rate sensor" and "angular velocity sensor" are frequently used. When it is challenging for humans to determine an object's orientation, these sensors are used. The change in the object's rotational angle per unit of time, measured in degrees per second, is known as angular velocity.

Fig 6- GYRO sensor


The twin H-Bridge motor driver L298N allows for simultaneous speed and direction control of two DC motors. The module is capable of driving DC motors with peak currents of up to 2A and voltage ranges of 5 to35V.

Fig 7- Motor Driver L29801






A unique head motion recognition algorithm is applied in this paper to enable wheelchair control for quadriplegics. The method is used as a microcontroller system algorithm. Experimental testing is done on a prototype of this system. The experiment's outcomes were excellent. Specifically, following system adaptation and a brief learning period, three distinct examinees executed instructions with a success rate of 94.16%. When the user makes free head gestures that aren't intended to send commands, more mistakes are made. In this instance, the system recognizes a command that wasn't meant in 13.66% of the situations. A mechanical and an electronic component make up the prototype. It is meant to stand out for its inexpensive price and high level of versatility.

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Author(s): Akhlad Kadri, Ajaharudin Ansari, Alok Gond

DOI: 10.55878/SES2023-3-1-3         Access: Open Access Read More