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Chaman Soni, Surendra Gupta, Himanshu Ranjan Working of vending machine. Spectrum of Emerging Sciences, 3 (1) 2023, 26-29. 10.55878/SES2023-3-1-5

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1.      Introduction

Vending machines have become integral to our modern consumer culture, providing convenient and efficient access to a wide range of products. These automated self-service machines offer a quick and hassle-free way for customers to purchase items such as snacks, beverages, personal care products, and more[1]-[4]. The vending machine industry has witnessed significant growth and innovation, driven by advancements in technology, changing consumer preferences, and the need for on-the-go convenience.

The purpose of this project is to design and develop a vending machine that meets the evolving needs of customers while ensuring a seamless and secure transaction process. This project report provides a detailed analysis of various aspects related to vending machines, including market research, target customer analysis, design and development considerations, technology integration, and future recommendations[5].

The design and development phase will focus on selecting the appropriate vending machine type, determining specifications, sourcing high-quality components, integrating robust security features, and designing an intuitive user interface. The prototype construction and assembly will involve rigorous testing to ensure optimal functionality and usability[6].

The primary objectives of this project are to create a reliable and user-friendly vending machine that caters to the preferences of the target customers[7]. Through extensive market research, we aim to understand consumer trends, preferences, and behavior, enabling us to identify the most suitable product categories and locations for the vending machine[8].

2. Proposed Method

In this project, the vending machine involves designing a user-friendly machine with robust hardware and software components[9]. Key elements include:

1. Vending Machine Design

2. Control system

3. Payment system

4. Inventory Management

The proposed method aims to create a reliable, secure, and convenient vending experience for customers[10].

The block diagram of the technique is mentioned below:

Fig 1: Block diagram of proposed system

Microcontroller or Single Board Computer (SBC)

Microcontrollers or Single-Board Computers (SBCs) are commonly used as the central processing units in vending machines. They provide the necessary computing power and control capabilities to manage the various functions and components of the vending machine.

Fig 2: Microcontroller or single board computers

Here is how microcontrollers and SBCs are utilized in vending machines

1. Control System

2. Data Processing

3. User Interface

4. Communication

5. Peripheral Control

6. Security


A real-time clock is an electronic device measures the passage of time. A real-time clock (RTC) is often used in vending machines to keep track of the current date and time accurately. It provides the vending machine with the ability to display the current time, schedule events, and track time-based operations.

Fig 3: Real Time Clock (RTC)

Here are some key points regarding the use of a real-time clock in a vending machine:

1. Functionality

2. Time Keeping

3. Scheduling

4. Timestamping

5. Synchronization

6. Integration


A seven-segment display is a common type of electronic display used in vending machines to show numerical or alphanumeric information. It consists of seven individual segments arranged in a specific pattern, allowing the display of numbers (0-9) and some letters (A-F)[11].

Fig 4: Seven-Segment Display

Here are some key points regarding the use of a seven-segment display in a vending machine[12]:

1. Numeric Display

2. Alphanumeric Display

3. Digit Multiplexing

4. Display Control

5. Additional Features

6. Size and Design


4.1 Proximity Sensors

Proximity sensors are commonly used in vending machines to detect the presence of customers and trigger the activation of the user interface. By using proximity sensors, vending machines can provide a responsive and interactive user interface, activating the necessary components when a customer is nearby[13]-[15]. This enhances the user experience, simplifies the interaction process, and conserves energy by minimizing unnecessary power consumption when the machine is not in use.


Fig 5: Proximity Sensors

4.2 Coin Validators

Coin validators are sensors that validate and process coins inserted by customers for payment. They detect the value and authenticity of the coins, allowing the vending machine to accept or reject them accordingly. Coin validators are essential components in vending machines that validate and process coins inserted by customers for payment.By incorporating coin validators, vending machines can securely and accurately process coin-based payments, providing a convenient and reliable payment method for customers. These validators contribute to efficient transactions, proper accounting, and overall operational integrity of the vending machine.

Fig 6: Coin Validator

There are many sensors used in the vending machines are: -

1. Bill Validators

2. Card Readers

3. Temperature Sensors

4. Light Sensors


Fig 7: Card Readers Sensors



Fig 8: Temperature Sensors

Fig 9: Light Sensors



In conclusion, vending machines have become an integral part of our daily lives, offering convenience and accessibility to a wide range of products. They have evolved from simple mechanical devices to sophisticated automated systems that utilize advanced technologies for improved functionality and user experience.

Throughout this project report, we have explored various aspects of vending machines, including their introduction, proposed methods, hardware design, and key components such as microcontrollers, sensors, display systems, GSM modules, and real-time clocks. We have also discussed the role of these components in facilitating seamless transactions, inventory management, remote monitoring, and customer interactions

Vending machines have proven to be an effective means of generating revenue and serving customers in a variety of locations, including offices, schools, airports, and public spaces. They offer a convenient and efficient way for customers to purchase goods and services without the need for human intervention.

Overall, vending machines have transformed the way we access products and services, providing convenience, efficiency, and accessibility. They continue to evolve with emerging technologies, making them an integral part of our modern society. As technology advances, we can expect further innovations in vending machines, enhancing their capabilities, expanding their applications, and improving customer satisfaction.

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Author(s): Chaman Soni, Surendra Gupta, Himanshu Ranjan

DOI: 10.55878/SES2023-3-1-5         Access: Open Access Read More