Aerial Systems (UAS) are the full system that enables a drone to operate,
although drones are frequently referred to as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV).
The UAV, which has either fixed wings or a single or several rotary engines, is
the brain of the UAS. For a drone to successfully take off, fly, and land, a
combination of hardware and software components are required. Drones are
often controlled by ground control stations, have rotors or fixed wings,
sensors, navigation systems, and gyroscopes (for stability). It is now obvious
that aerial surveillance plays a crucial role in ensuring the safety and
security of large crowds and sensitive areas. Certain locations, such
industrial zones or places where safety is more important, need better
maintenance and real-time response. A quick and accurate monitoring and
response system is required to satisfy these demands in order to counter any
danger, real or imagined. For security workers and emergency responders, sUAS
systems offer a special tool that enables real-time visibility and prompt
response when a breach takes place.
1- Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS)
The use of thermal
imaging enables surveillance at night or in areas with little light, allowing
security professionals to see weaknesses in buildings and infrastructure that
are often invisible through standard monitoring. Ground workers have rapid
access to high resolution images that may be used right away or stored for
later use. As long as autonomous flights are done in conformity with current
Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs), sUAS systems can be manually piloted or
programmed to autonomously fly predetermined routes. This allows ground
operators to concentrate on other tasks.
Drones are operated remotely and fuelled by
either gasoline or batteries. A variety of sensors, including cameras, lidar,
and infrared sensors, may be added to them, and these sensors can collect data
for mapping, surveying, and monitoring. Drones can now move independently,
avoid obstacles, and make judgements based on the data they gather thanks to
developments in machine learning and artificial intelligence.
2- Block diagram
Drones may be used in a
wide range of businesses. Drones are employed in agriculture for yield
analysis, crop monitoring, and spraying. Drones are employed in the
transportation industry for package delivery, search and rescue missions and
surveillance. Drones are employed in the military for reconnaissance,
surveillance, and targeted attacks. Drones are utilized for aerial photography
and filmmaking in the entertainment sector.
2. Hardware Design:
This is the most stable
KK board ever, and an Auto-level feature was made possible by updating the
original KK gyro system to an exceptionally sensitive twin chip 3 axis gyro and
single chip 3 axis accelerometer system. An Atmel Mega324PA 8-bit AVR
RISC-based microprocessor with 32k of memory powers the KK2.0. The KK2.0 now
has 8 motor output channels, making it possible to operate an octocopter with a
total of 8 motors. Along with the board, a useful Piezo buzzer provides an
audible alert when the board is activated and deactivated.
3- KK2.0 Multi-Rotor Control Board
Dimensions: 50.5 x 50.5
x 12 mm, Weight: 21 gram (Inc Piezo buzzer), Atmega324 PA IC, Voltage Range:
4.8–6.0V, Standard 6 pin AVR interface, Receiver signal: 1520us (5 channels),
ESC signal: 1520us
For safe and dependable
vehicle control, the FS-i6X employs 2.4GHz AFHDS 2A (Automatic Frequency
Hopping Digital System) technology. It can manage numerous vehicles at once and
has a range of up to 500 meters. It also supports multiple channels.
The FS-i6X can be used
with a variety of remote-controlled vehicles because it is compatible with a
large number of receiver units. It has a small, lightweight design that makes
it simple to transport and use in the field, and it is powered by four AA
cinematography, journalism, and other professions all use GoPro cameras, as do
athletes, explorers, and enthusiasts. The cameras are perfect for recording
video in demanding conditions because they are waterproof, shockproof, and can
be placed on a variety of surfaces.
‘The following are a
few characteristics of GoPro cameras:
GoPro cameras can record video at up to 4K resolutions and 120 frames per
second frame rates.
Image stabilization: To
eliminate shaky video, several GoPro models come with built-in image
Wide-angle lens: The
wide-angle lens on GoPro cameras can record an expansive field of view.’
Voice control is a
feature of several GoPro models that enables users to start and stop recording
or taking pictures without touching the camera.
A quadcopter frame
called the DJI F450 is intended for use in aerial photography and
cinematography. It is strong and portable since it is built of light-weight
components like fiberglass and exceptionally strong plastic.
The cockpit controller,
motor controllers, and distribution of the energy board are all housed in the
center plate of the frame, which also houses the electrical parts. The frame's
arms may be removed, making it simple to replace damaged components.
5- Frame DJIF450.
A BLDC (Brushless DC)
motor with a rating of 2P 1000KV refers to the motor's specific parameters-:
2P refers to the number
of poles in the motor's rotor. In a BLDC motor, the rotor is the rotating part
that contains the permanent magnets, while the stator is the stationary part
that contains the motor windings. A motor with 2 poles has a simple design and
is typically used in low power applications.
1000KV refers to the
motor's "kV rating," which is a measure of the motor's speed and
voltage characteristics. The kV rating represents the number of RPMs (rotations
per minute) that the motor will turn per volt applied. A motor with a 1000KV
rating will rotate at approximately 1000 RPM per volt applied.
6- Bldc 2p
An ESC works by
receiving a signal from a flight controller, transmitter, or other input device
and then converts that signal into the appropriate voltage and current levels
to control the motor. It regulates the power input to the motor and adjusts the
RPM of the motor accordingly.
ESCs have the following
BEC (Battery Eliminator
Circuit): This is a feature built into many ESCs that powers the receiver and
other electronics in the RC model.
Many ESCs allow users
to customize various settings such as motor timing, throttle response, and
To prevent damage to
the motor and other components, ESCs may include safety features such as
over-temperature protection, over-current protection, and low-voltage protection.
3. POWER SUPPLY:
An 11.3V LiPo (Lithium
Polymer) battery is a rechargeable battery made up of multiple cells connected
in series to provide a total voltage of 11.3V. LiPo batteries are widely used
in remote-controlled models like drones, RC cars, and airplanes, as well as
portable electronic devices like cameras and smartphones.
outperform other types of rechargeable batteries in several ways, including:-
-LiPo batteries have a
high energy density, which means they can store a lot of energy in a small and
-High discharge rates:
Because LiPo batteries can deliver high currents, they are ideal for
high-performance applications like racing drones and RC cars.
-LiPo batteries have a
low self-discharge rate, which means they can hold their charge for longer
periods of time when not in use.
-Size and shape can be
customized: LiPo batteries can be made in a variety of shapes and sizes to fit
specific devices and applications.
8- LiPo Battery
In this project, an
autonomous drone was developed.
The majority of the
other gear in the drone is controlled by an fsi 6x. The KK 2.0 board is also
utilized by the drone for the live streaming component. The drone's flight is managed
and observed by the mission planning software. Therefore, by creating the drone
with the capacity to do the vast majority of the needed activities we initially
had, we have achieved our objective of finishing the primary project.